Travel and tick-borne diseases: Lyme disease and beyond

On a global scale, ticks are second only to mosquitoes as the most important of vectors of infectious disease agents of humans [1]. Ticks transmit a greater diversity of viral, bacterial and protozoan infections than any other arthropod on earth, and in many temperate regions of the world, including Europe and the United States, tick-borne diseases (TBD) are the most widespread and medically important of all vector-borne infections. Lyme borreliosis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species and transmitted by various Ixodes spp., afflicts tens and possibly hundreds of thousands of persons in the Northern Hemisphere each year and has brought the subject of TBD to general attention more than any other associated infection.
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 9 November 2018Source: Journal of Theoretical BiologyAuthor(s): Mia Åstrand, Julia Cuellar, Jukka Hytönen, Tiina A. SalminenAbstractBacteria of the genus Borrelia cause vector-borne infections like the most important hard tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere, Lyme borreliosis (LB), and soft tick or louse transmitted relapsing fevers (RF), prevalent in temperate and tropical areas. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) includes several genospecies and causes LB in humans. In infected patients, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) expresses the BmpA, BmpB, BmpC and...
Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Ching-I Huang, Samantha C. Kay, Stephen Davis, Danielle M. Tufts, Kimberley Gaffett, Brian Tefft, Maria A. Diuk-WasserAbstractAn inverse relationship between biodiversity and human health has been termed the ‘dilution effect’ paradigm. In the case of tick-borne infections such as Lyme disease, the key assumption is that Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato abundance is increased by the loss of less competent (dilution) hosts as biodiversity declines. White-tailed deer play a dual role in the pathogen cycle, as key repro...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
In this study, the prevalence of antibodies against two Babesia spp. was investigated in a cohort of patients that were seropositive for Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Data were compared to a control group of healthy individuals. Sera were collected from 283 individuals residing in the southernmost region of Sweden, Skåne County. Almost one third of the sera were from patients with a confirmed seropositive reaction against B. burgdorferi s.l. All sera samples were assessed for IgG antibodies against Babesia (Ba.) microti and Ba. divergens by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assays. Seropositive IgG t...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
In this study, we examine the ability of spirochetes belonging to seven distinct genospecies (Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. spielmanii, B. bavariensis, B. lusitaniae and B. valaisiana) to adhere to human keratinocytes. Among the genospecies analyzed, B. valaisiana and B. spielmanii showed the strongest adherence while B. bavariensis, B. garinii and B. afzelii displayed moderate binding activity. By contrast, only a few cells of B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. lusitaniae bound to keratinocytes. Furthermore, intra-species differences have also been observed among B. garinii, B. bavarie...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Abstract The incidence of babesiosis, Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases has increased steadily in Europe and North America during the last five decades. Babesia microti is transmitted by species of Ixodes, the same ticks that transmit the Lyme disease-causing spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. B. microti can also be transmitted through transfusion of blood products and is the most common transfusion-transmitted infection in the U.S.A. Ixodes ticks are commonly infected with both B. microti and B. burgdorferi, and are competent vectors for transmitting them together into hosts. Few studies have examined the...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Christine A. James, David L. Pearl, L. Robbin Lindsay, Andrew S. Peregrine, Claire M. JardineAbstractIn eastern North America, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is the vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causal agents for human and canine Lyme disease and anaplasmosis, respectively. The extensive range expansion of I. scapularis in Ontario is a growing veterinary and public health concern. However, there is limited information on the risk factors associated with I. scapularis...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Abstract Lyme disease (borreliosis) is a tick-borne bacterial infection caused by the spirochaete Borrelia burgdoferi, transmitted by hard-backed Ixodes ticks. Actual numbers of cases are increasing and it appears that the distribution across the UK is widening; however, it occurs most frequently in area of woodland, with temperate climate. It typically presents in mid to late summer. Lyme disease is a multisystem disease. The nervous system is the second most commonly affected system after the skin. Other systemic manifestations, such as carditis, keratitis, uveitis and inflammatory arthritis, rarely occur in Eur...
Source: Practical Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Pract Neurol Source Type: research
Abstract Borrelia are tick-borne bacteria that in humans are the aetiological agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever. Here we present the first genomes of B. turcica and B. tachyglossi, members of a recently described and rapidly expanding Borrelia clade associated with reptile (B. turcica) or echidna (B. tachyglossi) hosts, transmitted by hard ticks, and of unknown pathogenicity. Borrelia tachyglossi and B. turcica genomes are similar to those of relapsing fever Borrelia species, containing a linear ~ 900 kb chromosome, a single long (> 70 kb) linear plasmid, and numerous short (
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
The objectives of this study were to investigate the geographic distribution and magnitude of tick infestations in opportunistically sampled mammalian wildlife and companion animals (i.e., dogs) in southern Ontario and to test these ticks for evidence of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. Ticks collected from wildlife carcasses, live-trapped wildlife and companion animals (2015-2016), as well as wildlife diagnostic cases (2011-2013), were identified to species and life stage. Ixodes scapularis ticks were tested by real-time PCR for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu st...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
B. miyamotoi was detected in Ixodes scapularis ticks in Connecticut in 2001 [2], but the first human case in the United States was not reported until 2013 [3]. Unlike with Lyme disease, patients in the United States with B. miyamotoi infections typically do not have skin lesions and instead present with a non-specific febrile illness, potentially associated with leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and elevated liver function tests [4]. Highly immunocompromised patients may develop chronic meningitis [3].
Source: The American Journal of Medicine - Category: General Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
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