Emerging Infectious Diseases: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review highlights some of the recent concerning emerging infectious diseases, a number of them specifically that the World Health Organization has categorized as priorities for research.Recent FindingsEmerging and reemerging infectious diseases account for significant losses in not only human life, but also financially. There are a number of contributing factors, most commonly surrounding human behavior, that lead to disease emergence. Zoonoses are the most common type of infection, specifically from viral pathogens. The most recent emerging diseases in the USA areEmergomyces canadensis, the Heartland virus, and the Bourbon virus.SummaryIn addition to the aforementioned pathogens, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Nipah virus, New Delhi metallo- ß-lactamase-1Enterobacteriaceae, Rift Valley Fever virus, and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus are reviewed. These pathogens are very concerning with a high risk for potential epidemic, ultimately causing both significant mortality and financial costs. Research should be focused on monitoring, prevention, and treatment of these diseases.
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2019Source: Best Practice &Research Clinical AnaesthesiologyAuthor(s): John C. Alexander, Biral Patel, Girish P. JoshiAbstractIn the midst of an epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose related morbidity and mortality, the use of opioids remains the most common means of providing analgesia in the perioperative period. In this article, we review the risks and benefits of opioid use in preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative phases of care. Furthermore, we describe the role that surgeons and anaesthesiologists can play in reducing perioperative opioid use and mitigate their...
CONCLUSIONS Our findings reinforce the idea that MSSA and MRSA strains should be carefully monitored, owing to their high pathogenic potential.
CONCLUSIONS: Although ZIKV was not confirmed to cause the congenital malformations, this study demonstrated that the clinical and epidemiological findings associated with a STORCH exclusion strengthened the CZS diagnosis. The suspected cases in MT occurred simultaneously with the first CZS cases reported in Brazil, suggesting ZIKV circulation in the study region during the same period.
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Michael J. Gaudry, Michaela Keuper, Martin JastrochAbstractIn eutherian mammals, brown adipose tissue (BAT) permits non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) through high metabolic rates catalyzed by the unique mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). The tissue has recently gained remarkable attention due its discovery in adult humans. Approaching BAT and UCP1 as therapeutic targets to combust surplus energy bares high potential to combat the epidemic of the metabolic syndrome that has precipitated in our society as a result of our mo...
Authors: Av R, Sadanandan S, Thulaseedharan NK, Kg SK, Pallivalappil B, As AK Abstract Nipah Virus Infection is an emerging zoonotic infection which presents with acute encephalitis and respiratory distress syndrome. It is associated with high mortality and classified as Biosafety level 4 organisms in view of its features which make it a potential agent for Bioterrorism. Experience with broad spectrum antiviral agent Ribavirin is promising in reducing the mortality and morbidity. PMID: 31313551 [PubMed - in process]
We examined the proportion of news stories mentioning treatment, harm reduction, prevention, criminal justice, opioid prescribing, pharmaceutical manufacturer, insurer, and other solutions. News stories were coded using a structured coding instrument, and 200 news stories were double-coded to ensure interrater reliability. Data were collected and analyzed in 2018. Treatment (mentioned in 33% of news stories), harm reduction (30%), and prevention (24%) solutions were the most frequently mentioned types of solutions. Several evidence-based public health solutions received little news coverage: medication treatment for opioid...
Dr. Barton Haynes, the director of DHVI leads a 21-year research project to end the AIDS epidemic
[Oxfam] In response to the World Health Organization's declaration of the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo as a 'public health emergency of international concern', Oxfam's Country Director in the DRC, Corinne N'Daw, said:
The virus spread this week to a city of two million people
[USAID] Today, the World Health Organization (WHO) designated the outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) under the International Health Regulations (2005). The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) applauds this decision, and will continue to scale up life-saving support to bring this outbreak to an end. This decision reinforces our call to strengthen the response to Ebola through improved leadership and coordination
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