Personalized medicine in rheumatology: the paradigm of serum autoantibodies

AbstractThe sequencing of the human genome is now well recognized as the starting point of personalized medicine. Nonetheless, everyone is unique and can develop different phenotypes of the same disease, despite identical genotypes, as well illustrated by discordant monozygotic twins. To recognize these differences, one of the easiest and most familiar examples of biomarkers capable of identifying and predicting the outcome of patients is represented by serum autoantibodies. In this review, we will describe the concept of personalized medicine and discuss the predictive, prognostic and preventive role of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA), rare autoantibodies and anti-drug antibodies (ADA), to evaluate how these can help to identify different disease immune phenotypes and to choose the best option for treating and monitoring rheumatic patients in everyday practice. The importance of ANA resides in the prediction of clinical manifestations in systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus and their association with malignancies. ACPA have a predictive role in rheumatoid arthritis, they are associated with the development of a more aggressive disease, extra-articular manifestations and premature mortality in RA patients; moreover, they are capable of predicting therapeutic response. Rare autoantibodies are associated with different disease manifestations and also with a greater incidence of cancer. The determination of ADA levels may...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Related Links:

In this study, we analyzed the metabolic profiling of fecal samples from SLE patients and healthy controls based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry for exploring the potential biomarkers of SLE. The results showed that 23 differential metabolites and 5 perturbed pathways were identified between the two groups, including aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, thiamine metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and cyanoamino acid metabolism. In addition, logistic regression and ROC analysis were used to establish a diagnostic model for distinguishing SLE patients from healthy ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions The clinical trials discussed here, which include several trials investigating novel therapeutic targets, demonstrate that translational research in pemphigus and pemphigoid is a fast-growing field. We thus expect that several novel treatments will be shortly available for the treatment of pemphigus and pemphigoid patients. Given the high, and thus far unmet, medical need in this field (110), this is highly encouraging and will hopefully improve the quality of life of the affected patients. In addition to the compounds and targets described here, several new targets have been recently identified in preclinical...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Gulcin Tezcan1, Ekaterina V. Martynova1, Zarema E. Gilazieva1, Alan McIntyre2, Albert A. Rizvanov1 and Svetlana F. Khaiboullina1,3* 1Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia 2Centre for Cancer Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, NV, United States Inflammation has a crucial role in protection against various pathogens. The inflammasome is an intracellular multiprotein signaling complex that is linked to pathogen sensing and...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our data indicate reduced P2X7R expression and function in SLE patients compared with HC and, conversely, increased IL-6 signaling. The possible consequences of reduced P2X7R, mainly on cytokines network deregulation and lymphocyte proliferation, will be further investigated as well as the role of IL-6 as a possible therapeutic target especially in lupus serositis. Introduction With the first reports of Burnstock in 1970s, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has passed from a simple molecule devoted to energy reserve, to a relevant extracellular signaling molecule able to mediate numerous physiological and pat...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Qiancheng Deng1, Yangyang Luo1,2, Christopher Chang3, Haijing Wu1, Yan Ding4* and Rong Xiao1* 1Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenetics, Department of Dermatology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China 2Department of Dermatology, Hunan Children's Hospital, Changsha, China 3Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States 4Department of Dermatology, Hainan Provincial Dermatology Disease Hospital, Haikou, China Autoimmune diseases are usually complex and multifactorial, characterized by aberrant produc...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions In recent years, there have been many advances in the understanding of the molecular basis for vascular involvement in APS, but many areas need to be further investigated, in particular the association between altered genetic/epigenetic profiles, autoantibodies and clinical manifestations, and the effectiveness of new therapeutic strategies. It would be interesting to apply next generation sequencing technologies like RNA-Seq along with GWAS to screen both, the gene profile and the whole transcriptome of large cohorts of primary APS patients, in order to reveal the mutations/polymorphisms, post-transcriptiona...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract Comprehensive identification of antigens in immune complexes (IC-antigens) is beneficial to provide insights into pathophysiology and could form the basis for novel diagnostic and treatment strategies for many immune-related diseases. Immune complexome analysis is a method for comprehensively identifying and profiling IC-antigens in biological fluids (such as serum and cerebrospinal fluid). We applied this strategy to the analysis of circulating ICs in autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, systemic scleroderma, and systemic lupus erythematosus), infectious diseases, and cance...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research
Rationale: Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs widely used in the treatment of estrogen sensitive breast and ovarian cancer which convert testosterone to estradiol and androstenedione to estrogen. The AIs of third generation, including anastrazole, letrozole and exemestane, have actually become the standard of care of estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in menopausal women and are recommended as adjuvant treatment after surgery in place of/or following tamoxifen. Their main side-effects include reduction in bone mineral density, occurrence of menopausal manifestations and development of musculoskeletal s...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an immune-mediated autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis and vascular abnormalities. The cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear, and current therapies are limited. Cell metabolism has been shown to play an essential role in cancer survival and tumour invasion as well as in rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Although little is known about SSc, cell metabolism may provide new clues for understanding its pathogenesis.
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractThe number of peer-reviewed articles published during the 2017 solar year and retrieved using the “autoimmunity” key word increased significantly compared to 2016 while maintaining a stable share within the immunology field, following years with alternated fortunes. A detailed arbitrary analysis of the published articles in leading immunology and autoimmunity journals provides a privileged v iewpoint on the current trends of research from both basic and clinical studies. Indeed, we are observing that major steps forward are found for rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and systemic scler...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
More News: Allergy & Immunology | Arthritis | Autoimmune Disease | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Lupus | Rheumatoid Arthritis | Rheumatology | Scleroderma