Transforming growth factor- β signaling in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Insights into cellular responses.
Transforming growth factor-β signaling in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Insights into cellular responses. Oncol Lett. 2018 Oct;16(4):4799-4806 Authors: Pang X, Tang YL, Liang XH Abstract Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) arises in the oral cavity, salivary glands, larynx, pharynx, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, and is characterized by high morbidity and metastasis rates. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a homodimeric protein known to be a multifunctional regulator in target cells and to serve a pivotal role in numerous types of cancer, including HNSCC. The role of TGF-β signaling in carcinogenesis can change from tumor-suppressing to tumor-promoting. In addition, TGF-β induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and restrains immune surveillance on malignant cells. In the present review, the effects of TGF-β signaling at a cellular level were discussed, which includes the regulation of tumor cells, immune cells and other stromal cells, as well as the possible mechanisms underlying the conversion from a tumor suppressor to a tumor promoter in HNSCC. Further research is required to improve the understanding on how this network is involved in carcinogenesis, progression and metastases in HNSCC. PMID: 30250544 [PubMed]
There is an urgent need to share expertise and offer emergency guidance for breast radiation therapy (RT) during the COVID-19 (Coronavirus) pandemic. As per the World Health Organisation (WHO) statement, our aim and obligation should be “to stop, contain, control, delay and reduce the impact of this virus at every opportunity”. In our roles as healthcare professionals and/or breast cancer experts this translates to minimising exposure of our patients to COVID-19 without compromising oncological outcome.
Purpose: The availability of novel imaging modalities (NIM) in prostate cancer (PCa) has overtaken the evidence informing their use. The recent EORTC consensus statement on modern imaging recognises the need for large-scale clinical trials of novel imaging . The UK environment is well placed to conduct such trials; the NCRI prostate cancer CSG wished to benchmark current UK imaging availability and practice to inform future national trials.
Purpose: The role of pelvic nodal irradiation in prostate cancer remains controversial. Nevertheless, many high-risk patients are treated with prostate and pelvis radiotherapy in addition to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) . A recent retrospective study  and data from the UK Stampede control arm  suggest that radiotherapy may be of benefit to node positive patients. The aim of our study was to document outcomes in patients with node positive prostate cancer treated with pelvic nodal radiotherapy in a UK cancer centre.
Purpose: Relapsed or progressive prostate cancer frequently manifests as consecutive PSA rises long before disease is clinically detectable. Imaging with novel radiotracers targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been shown to be more sensitive in identifying the site of disease at lower PSA levels compared with conventional imaging, which may provide increased opportunity for salvage therapy, more aggressive local management of oligometastatic disease or increased confidence in proceeding with systemic therapy .
Purpose: To assess the benefits and risks of co-administering maintenance prednisolone with docetaxel and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in hormone sensitive metastatic prostate cancer (HSMPC).
Purpose: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are now standard of care for advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC) that have failed platinum therapy. Atezolizumab and pembrolizumab are also approved in the first line setting for patients who are cisplatin-ineligible and are PD-L1 positive. This retrospective observational study aimed to describe the safety and efficacy of the ICI pembrolizumab in the real world setting at Guy ’s Hospital.
Purpose: As doctors we are required to take consent for radiotherapy; we typically take written consent . We must tell a patient if a treatment might result in a serious adverse outcome, even if the likelihood is very small . As many cancer centres move towards tumour site-specific consent forms for prostate radiotherapy we wanted to ascertain if there was consensus.
In this study, we describe our experience with both drugs at the Diana Princess of Wales Hospital (DPoW), Grimsby.
Purpose: Synchronous chemotherapy with mitomycin C and 5-FU with radiotherapy may have an additional benefit over radiotherapy alone . We looked into the rate of recurrence and median overall survival between these two groups of patients.
Purpose: The use of FDG PET has become more readily available over the past 15 years. It can be used to aid initial staging of testicular tumours and also assess the response to treatment in the metastatic setting, especially as residual masses are frequently seen after chemotherapy. There have been some recent concerns that FDG PET used to assess for residual disease may have a low positive predictive value . A retrospective audit was carried out to look at the performance of FDG PET in seminoma patients treated at the Edinburgh Cancer Centre.