Autoimmune reactions and paraneoplastic syndromes.

[Autoimmune reactions and paraneoplastic syndromes]. Radiologe. 2018 Sep 20;: Authors: Lieb JM, Naumann N, Ahlhelm FJ Abstract CLINICAL ISSUE: Autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) are common but are also a heterogeneous group of diseases. The most common form is multiple sclerosis (MS), others are clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare and tumor-associated, they are not induced by direct invasion of tumor tissue but by tumor-associated autoantibodies mostly against specific CNS proteins, e. g. limbic encephalitis and paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia or degeneration. DIAGNOSTICS, STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS, PERFORMANCE AND ACHIEVEMENTS: The correct diagnosis of autoimmune and paraneoplastic syndromes can still be challenging. In addition to the patient history, clinical examination and blood as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is gaining importance in the diagnostics. It is important not only in primary diagnostics but also in follow-up and therapy monitoring, especially in MS with specific therapies to detect therapy complications, such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy as early as possible. In paraneoplastic syndromes MRI can also be an important component in the diagnostics but can also initially be negative and typical signal changes become vi...
Source: Der Radiologe - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemistry seems to be a promising option not only in clinical recognition, but also in the selection and monitoring of treatment effects. However, these methods have not yet recommended for routine clinical use. PMID: 33032462 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Authors: Schep LJ, Slaughter RJ, Glue P, Gee P Abstract Cannabis is one of the most widely used recreational drugs in the world. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the psychoactive principal constituent of the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa). It is taken either orally or by inhalation, resulting in sedation, euphoria, relaxation and loss of social inhibition. Adverse effects from higher doses can include fear, distrust and a profound state of unease, hallucinations, ataxia, stupor and seizures. Long-term use can result in respiratory and cardiovascular toxicity and has been associated with a range of psychiatric condit...
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related DisordersAuthor(s): Brenda Bertado-Cortés, Claudia Venzor-Mendoza, Daniel Rubio-Ordoñez, José Renán Pérez-Pérez, Lucy Andrea Novelo-Manzano, Lyda Viviana Villamil-Osorio, María de Jesús Jiménez-Ortega, María de la Luz Villalpando-Gueich, Nayeli Alejandra Sánchez-Rosales, Verónica García-Talavera
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Neurología (English Edition)Author(s): G. Alvarez Bravo, L. RamióTorrentà
Source: Neurologia - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Authors: Kim EH, Shim WH, Lee JS, Yoon HM, Ko TS, Yum MS Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent quantitative neuroimaging studies of childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) have identified various structural abnormalities that might be involved in the onset of absence seizure and associated cognitive and behavioral functions. However, the neuroanatomical alterations specific to CAE remain unclear, and so this study investigated the regional alterations of brain structures associated with newly diagnosed CAE. METHODS: Surface and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging data of patients with newly diagnosed CAE (n=18) an...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Paramagnetic rims might be a characteristic MRI finding for MS, and therefore they have potential as an imaging marker for differentially diagnosing MS from NMOSD using 3-T MRI. PMID: 33029961 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research
In conclusion, the presence of anti-SOX1 abs alone is a potential predictor of an uncommon paraneoplastic neurological disorder, usually occurring in the setting of LEMS, PCD, and SCLC. The detection of anti-SOX1 abs contributes to an early diagnosis of underlying tumors, given the diversity of clinical symptoms and the absence of characteristic neuroimaging features. PMID: 33029958 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research
Authors: Jang Y, Kim DW, Yang KI, Byun JI, Seo JG, No YJ, Kang KW, Kim D, Kim KT, Cho YW, Lee ST, Drug Committee of Korean Epilepsy Society Abstract Autoimmune epilepsy is a newly emerging area of epilepsy. The concept of "autoimmune" as an etiology has recently been revisited thanks to advances in autoimmune encephalitis and precision medicine with immunotherapies. Autoimmune epilepsy presents with specific clinical manifestations, and various diagnostic approaches including cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neuroimaging, and autoantibody tests are essential for its differential diagnosis. The diagnosis is o...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: GA-MRI is an effective noninvasive method that may be useful for the differentiation of NASH from isolated steatosis, and could help to avoid liver biopsy in patients with NAFLD. PMID: 33033571 [PubMed]
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: As the present study was the first investigation on the coagulation status in patients with AA, elevated D-dimer levels in alopecia areata may suggest a deficient coagulation in these patients that may contribute to an increase in the risk of thrombosis. Further studies are needed to evaluate this hypothesis using a larger sample size. PMID: 33034439 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia - Category: Dermatology Tags: G Ital Dermatol Venereol Source Type: research
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