Dopamine and opioid systems adaptation in alcoholism revisited: Convergent evidence from positron emission tomography and postmortem studies

Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Anita C. Hansson, Gerhard Gründer, Natalie Hirth, Hamid R. Noori, Rainer Spanagel, Wolfgang H. SommerAbstractA major hypothesis in the addiction field suggests deficits in dopamine signaling during abstinence as a driving mechanism for the relapsing course of the disorder. Paradoxically, blockade of mu-opioid receptors (MORs) intended to suppress dopamine release and alcohol reward is a widely used treatment for preventing relapse in alcohol use disorder (AUD). To elucidate this apparent discrepancy, we systematically survey the literature on experimental studies in AUD subjects and animal models, which assessed striatal dopamine levels and D1, D2-like receptor, dopamine transporter and MOR via positron emission tomography (PET) and ex vivo receptor binding assays. The reported evidence indicates a changing dopaminergic signaling over time, which is associated with concomitant alterations in MOR, thus suggesting a highly dynamic regulation of the reward system during abstinence. Such a view can reconcile the various evidences from in vivo and postmortem studies, but makes developing an effective pharmacological intervention that specifically targets either dopamine receptors or the transporter system a daunting task.
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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The future of healthcare is shaping up in front of our very eyes with advances in digital technologies, such as artificial intelligence, VR/AR, 3D-printing, robotics or nanotechnology. We have to familiarize with the latest developments in order to be able to control technology and not the other way around. The future of healthcare lies in working hand-in-hand with technology and healthcare workers have to embrace emerging technologies in order to stay relevant in the coming years. Be bold, curious and informed! Are you afraid that robots will take over the jobs of nurses, doctors and other healthcare professionals? Are y...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Future of Medicine 3d printing AI artificial intelligence augmented reality genetics Health Healthcare nanotechnology Personalized medicine pharma pharmacology robotics virtual reality wearables GC1 Source Type: blogs
Conclusion Learning how to pay attention to our attention (meta-attention) can be transformative. Using principles from cognitive science, we can create a comprehensive approach (attention capital theory in medicine) to reclaim the meaning and joy that has been depleted from our profession. Increasing the difficulty of our work to match our skill level, delegating low-level tasks to help us focus on critical steps in our physician zone, creating rules to eliminate distractions, and noticing both the wonder and suffering around us may be more important than resilience training or wellness modules. Although well-intention...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Medical Practice Physicians Burnout physician burnout physician wellness Sanj Katyal Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Sarah F. Dean, Samantha J. Fede, Nancy Diazgranados, Reza MomenanAbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effect neuroticism has on the relationship between alcohol use severity and amygdala connectivity. Previous studies have indicated that amygdala connectivity and negative affect play a role in the cycle of addiction, and that neuroticism, which shares similar qualities with negative affect, is also related to amygdala connectivity, but the role neuroticism plays in mediating the relationship between AUD and amygdala...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeBrain positron emission tomography using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG-PET) provides a metabolic assessment of brain function that is useful for differential diagnosis among several neurodegenerative diseases manifested by cognitive impairment (CI). The purpose of the study is to describe the pattern of 18FDG-PET abnormalities in patients with CI related to alcohol use disorder.MethodsPatients admitted to the addiction medicine department of a university hospital in Paris between January 2017 and October 2018 with a confirmed diagnosis of alcohol-related cognitive impairment (ARCI) or Wernicke encephalopathy...
Source: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 2 January 2020Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Enrico Amico, Mario Dzemidzic, Brandon G. Oberlin, Claire R. Carron, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Joaquín Goñi, David A. KarekenAbstractHuman functional brain connectivity is usually measured either at “rest” or during cognitive tasks, ignoring life's moments of mental transition. We propose a different approach to understanding brain network transitions. We applied a novel independent component analysis of functional connectivity during motor inhibition (stop signal task) and during the continuous transition to an immediately ens...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
What exactly is psychosis? What happens in the brain of a person with schizophrenia who is hallucinating? Schizophrenic Rachel Star Withers shares her personal hallucinations and delusions and Dr. Joseph Goldberg, who specializes in researching what goes on in the brain when someone is experiencing psychosis, joins to break down how the brain functions during psychotic episodes. Host Rachel Star Withers, a diagnosed schizophrenic, and co-host Gabe Howard delve into these intense subjects in this episode of Inside Schizophrenia.  Highlights from “Psychosis in Schizophrenia” Episode [02:13]  Rachel, do...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Brain and Behavior Disorders General Inside Schizophrenia Mental Health and Wellness Active psychosis Delusions Delusions Hallucinations Living with Schizoprenia Mental Disorder Mental Illness Psychology psychotic Psychotic Break Source Type: blogs
A behavioral brain fad called “dopamine fasting” (#dopaminefasting) has been floating around the internet for the past year. The idea is that by restricting most of your pleasurable daily activities — from social media, to watching videos, gaming, talking, or even eating — you can “reset” your brain. The idea also plays into people’s simplistic beliefs about how the brain works. Can you have conscious control over discrete dopamine levels in your brain? Let’s delve into the science behind one of your brain’s most important neurotransmitters, dopamine. During a “d...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Brain and Behavior General Mental Health and Wellness Motivation and Inspiration Psychology Research dopamine fasting Neuroscience Neurotransmitter social media Technology unplug Source Type: blogs
This article is excerpted from TIME: The Science of Addiction—What We Know. What We’re Learning. In some ways, of course, food is more insidious than drugs, because there’s no such thing as abstinence, no such thing as never starting in the first place, no such thing as being able to say, “Food? Never touch the stuff.” You eat because you’ll die if you don’t, so you spend your life in a sort of nutritional two-step—a little but not too much; go overboard today, cut back tomorrow; eat the good stuff but never the junk. Sometimes you succeed at all of that, and other times yo...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Addiction Diet/Nutrition Obesity Source Type: news
After chronic alcohol exposure, kappa opioid receptor (KOR) activation prompts negative mood states and symptoms that are involved in negative reinforcing aspects of alcohol addiction. Stress or “classic” KOR agonist has been found to induce alcohol-seeking behavior and promote alcohol relapse–like drinking. In this issue of Biological Psychiatry, a new publication from de Laat et al. (1) studied non-treatment-seeking heavy drinkers who met the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence. First, using positron emission tomography with the selective KOR radioligand [11C]LY2795050, de Laat et al.
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
l M Abstract BACKGROUND.: Compulsivity can be seen across various mental health conditions and refers to a tendency toward repetitive habitual acts that are persistent and functionally impairing. Compulsivity involves dysfunctional reward-related circuitry and is thought to be significantly heritable. Despite this, its measurement from a transdiagnostic perspective has received only scant research attention. Here we examine both the psychometric properties of a recently developed compulsivity scale, as well as its relationship with compulsive symptoms, familial risk, and reward-related attentional capture. ME...
Source: CNS Spectrums - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research
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