Impaired histaminergic neurotransmission in children with narcolepsy type 1.

Impaired histaminergic neurotransmission in children with narcolepsy type 1. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2018 Sep 17;: Authors: Franco P, Dauvilliers Y, Inocente CO, Guyon A, Villanueva C, Raverot V, Plancoulaine S, Lin JS Abstract OBJECTIVE: Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized in humans by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. Greater than fifty percent of narcoleptic patients have an onset of symptoms prior to the age of 18. Current general agreement considers the loss of hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons as the direct cause of narcolepsy notably cataplexy. To assess whether brain histamine (HA) is also involved, we quantified the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of HA and tele-methylhistamine (t-MeHA), the direct metabolite of HA between children with orexin-deficient narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) and controls. METHODS: We included 24 children with NT1 (12.3 ± 3.6 years, 11 boys, 83% cataplexy, 100% HLA DQB1*06:02) and 21 control children (11.2 ± 4.2 years, 10 boys). CSF HA and t-MeHA were measured in all subjects using a highly sensitive liquid chromatographic-electrospray/tandem mass spectrometric assay. CSF hypocretin-1 values were determined in the narcoleptic patients. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, NT1 children had higher CSF HA levels (771 vs 234 pmol/L, P 
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

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Orexins [orexin-A (OXA) and orexin-B (OXB)] are two isoforms of neuropeptides produced by the hypothalamus. The main biological actions of orexins, focused on the central nervous system, are to control the sleep/wake process, appetite and feeding, energy homeostasis, drug addiction, and cognitive processes. These effects are mediated by two G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) subtypes named OX1R and OX2R. In accordance with the synergic and dynamic relationship between the nervous and immune systems, orexins also have neuroprotective and immuno-regulatory (i.e., anti-inflammatory) properties. The present review gathers recen...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Abstract Narcolepsy (NA) is a primary sleep disorder characterized by loss of hypocretinergic/orexinergic neurons. NA is associated with an increased risk for metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Proposed mechanisms for this association are alterations in food intake, disruption of energy balance, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity, as well as inflammation and genetic factors. Orexin deficiency, is associated with increased food intake and reduced basal metabolic rate (BMR) both leading to obesity. The anti-apoptotic effect of orexin on pancreatic beta-cells, increase in peripheral insulin s...
Source: Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research
AbstractThe incorporation of telemedicine and artificial intelligence for early screening and assessment of severity of life-style disorders has a great potential for better assessment in a busy outpatient clinic and thereby curtail down the related morbidities. A computer based algorithm based upon standardized questionnaire (from established assessment tools) is designed to assess the risk of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). In addition the incorporation of basic screening questions of anamnesis help in suggesting a probable diagnosis of sleep related disorder as well. The overall data at our center has been ana...
Source: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Authors: Maia Palhano AC, Kim LJ, Moreira GA, Santos Coelho FM, Tufik S, Levy Andersen M Abstract Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, sleep paralysis and hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations. The onset of the symptoms usually occurs in childhood, and previous studies have reported an association between narcolepsy and other endocrine diseases in the pediatric population, such as obesity and precocious puberty. The incidence of overweight or obesity ranges from 25% to 74% in patients with narcolepsy type I, while precocious puberty is present in 17% of childr...
Source: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Pediatr Endocrinol Rev Source Type: research
Abstract Narcolepsy is a common sleep disorder in Western countries but rarely reported from India. Here, we report a small case series of four narcolepsy patients seen over a four year period in the sleep clinic of a tertiary care hospital in north India. The diagnosis was established by clinical history and two or more sleep-onset rapid eye movements (SOREMs) on multiple sleep latency tests (MSLTs) following overnight polysomnography (PSG). The mean age of patients was 26.2±6.4 yr; one patient had associated cataplexy and another one had all four cardinal symptoms of narcolepsy. All these patients had a h...
Source: Indian J Med Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Indian J Med Res Source Type: research
Obstructive sleep apnoea –hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS), obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), periodic limb movement disorder and narcolepsy are the sleep disorders most commonly encountered in clinical practice. All four are characterized by sleep disturbance leading to daytime hypersomnolence. In OSAHS, repetitive parti al or complete upper airway obstruction leads to respiratory effort-related arousals and sleep fragmentation. Weight loss can lead to resolution of symptoms. The mainstay of treatment is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Medicine and other specialties Source Type: research
We thank Dr. Cremaschi and colleagues for their interest in our recent paper and recent report corroborating the association of obesity with narcolepsy from diagnosis over time (Cremaschi et al., [1]). We agree that fatigue is a significant comorbidity, distinct from excessive daytime sleepiness (Droogleever et al., [2]), which warrants clinical attention. Their present finding that fatigue is elevated in both narcolepsy type 1 and type 2 is intriguing and speaks to the importance of accurate symptom recognition.
Source: Sleep Medicine - Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Publication date: June 2018Source: Pharmacology &Therapeutics, Volume 186Author(s): Hiroshi Tsuneki, Tsutomu Wada, Toshiyasu SasaokaAbstractSleep, a mysterious behavior, has recently been recognized as a crucial factor for health and longevity. The daily sleep/wake cycle provides the basis of biorhythms controlling whole-body homeostasis and homeodynamics; therefore, disruption of sleep causes several physical and psychological disorders, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, cancer, anxiety, depression, and cognitive dysfunction. However, the mechanism linking sleep disturbances and sleep-related disord...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
The objective of the study was to determine the frequency and the characteristic of chronic pain according to the type of narcolepsy. We also investigated the effect of the interaction between the nutritional status and the type of narcolepsy. It was a cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires. Patients with narcolepsy (33 type 1 and 33 type 2), from Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil, matched by age and gender to 33 control subjects were included. Both types of narcolepsy presented a high frequency of chronic pain (84.84% type 1 versus 75.75% type 2), with indistinct pain characteristics b...
Source: Journal of Sleep Research - Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Tags: J Sleep Res Source Type: research
Abstract Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is a rare chronic neurologic disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hallucinations and disrupted nocturnal sleep, usually with onset during childhood/adolescence. Pediatric NT1 is associated with limitations on children's activities and achievements, especially poor performance at school, difficulty with peers due to disease symptoms and comorbidities including depression, obesity, and precocious puberty. NT1 disease is caused by the selective loss of hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, most probably related to an a...
Source: Current Drug Metabolism - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Drug Metab Source Type: research
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