Researchers find adult stem cell characteristics in aggressive cancers from different tissues

UCLA researchers have discovered  genetic similarities between the adult stem cells responsible for maintaining and repairing epithelial tissues — which line all of the organs and cavities inside the body — and the cells that drive aggressive epithelial cancers. Their findings could bring about a better understanding of how ag gressive, treatment-resistant cancers develop and progress, and could eventually lead to new drugs for a range of advanced epithelial cancers such as lung, prostate and bladder cancers. The study, led by senior authors Owen Witte and Thomas Graeber, both of the  UCLA Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, was published in the  journal Cell Reports.Epithelial cancers account for 80 to 90 percent of all cancers diagnosed in the United States, according to theNational Cancer Institute. Almost every type of epithelial cancer can develop into a highly aggressive form that metastasizes, or spreads rapidly to other organs in the body, and resists standard-of-care treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy.As part of a new and promising approach to cancer research, scientists are now seeking to uncover commonalities among these aggressive epithelial cancers in order to inform the development of “pan-cancer” therapies, those that can treat a range of cancers originating in different tissues.“Pinpointing the molecu...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Related Links:

Context: Human kidney organoids are complex structures resembling nephron arrays, which can be derived in a variety of ways. Whether all of these differentiation protocols produce qualitatively similar organoid cell types is not yet clear.Subject of Review: A comparative analysis of 2 organoid differentiation protocols is recently reported inCell Stem Cell [Wu et al.: Cell Stem Cell 2018;pii:S1934-5909(18)30491-0], using single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) as an analytical tool. This demonstrates that the 2 protocols have much in common, and that neither produces kidney cells in a pure or comprehensive manner. Ureteric ...
Source: Nephron - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe onset of a second primary tumour was related with the primary treatment given; thus the risk for those treated with radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy more than doubled.ResumenIntroducción y objetivosLa aparición de segundos tumores primarios en pacientes con cáncer de próstata de alto riesgo debe tenerse en cuenta en la evolución natural de la enfermedad. Nuestro objetivo es evaluar la influencia del tratamiento primario con intención curativa de dichos pacientes en el desarrollo de segundos tumores primarios.Material y métodosEstudio retrospectivo...
Source: Actas Urologicas Espanolas - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe PET scan showed similar sensitivity for urological tumours to the standard imaging techniques but with higher specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. This led to a change in treatment strategy for 40% of the patients in our series. The PET scan will probably become the standard test in the extension and follow-up studies of most urological tumours.ResumenIntroducciónEn los últimos años han surgido nuevos estudios de imagen en diagnóstico y seguimiento de tumores urológicos metastásicos.Material y métodosSe revisa a 41 pacientes con...
Source: Actas Urologicas Espanolas - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
We report that the disruption of excitation-contraction coupling contributes to impaired force generation in the mouse model of Sod1 deficiency. Briefly, we found a significant reduction in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) activity as well as reduced expression of proteins involved in calcium release and force generation. Another potential factor involved in EC uncoupling in Sod1-/- mice is oxidative damage to proteins involved in the contractile response. In summary, this study provides strong support for the coupling between increased oxidative stress and disruption of cellular excitation contraction mac...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
s The notion that androgens and androgen receptor (AR) signaling are the hallmarks of prostate cancer oncogenesis and disease progression is generally well accepted. What is more poorly understood is the role of AR signaling in other human malignancies. This special issue of Cancers initially reviews the role of AR in advanced prostate cancer, and then explores the potential importance of AR signaling in other epithelial malignancies. The first few articles focus on the use of novel AR-targeting therapies in castration-resistant prostate cancer and the mechanisms of resistance to novel antiandrogens, and they also outl...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Conclusions: Developmental BPA exposures heighten prostate cancer susceptibility in a complex dose- and lobe-specific manner. Importantly, elevated carcinogenic risk is found at doses that yield undetectable serum free BPA. Dose-specific epigenetic modifications of selected genes provide a mechanistic framework that may connect early-life BPA to later-life predisposition to prostate carcinogenesis. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1050 Received: 1 September 2016 Revised: 13 January 2017 Accepted: 19 January 2017 Published: 11 July 2017 Address correspondence to G.S. Prins, Dept. of Urology, University of Illinois at Chicago...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
In conclusion, (E1)-3s is an attractive candidate for T-cell redirected therapy of breast cancer due to its potent activity with potentially reduced side effects and the prevalence of Trop-2 expression associated with this disease. Tumor microarrays representing 117 breast cancer patients showed>85% positivity for Trop-2. Our immunohistochemical analysis of more than 50 individual TNBC patient specimens demonstrated 92% positivity, with 80% having moderate to strong Trop-2-staining. Combining checkpoint inhibitors with redirected T-cell therapy may represent a new paradigm for the management of solid cancers, including ...
Source: Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Poster Session Abstracts Source Type: research
We report a case of synchronous bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and prostatic carcinoma with CLL. A 74-year-old male who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia 2 years before, presented with recurrent urinary tract infection. Peripheral blood smear revealed leukocytosis with absolute lymphocytosis (absolute lymphocyte count: 37870 cells/mm³). Flow cytometric immunophenotyping revealed 75% abnormal lymphoid cells which were positive for CD 19, CD5, CD23, CD22, CD200, CD20 (moderate) with lambda light chain restriction and negative for CD3, CD10, FMC7, CD38, C...
Source: Malaysian Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Malays J Pathol Source Type: research
Abstract The treatment failure often happens in overactive bladder (OAB) partly owing to its unknown pathogenesis. The purpose of this study is to find significant receptors or biological markers for OAB-related symptoms for establishment of potential order-made therapeutic strategies. The overactive bladder symptom scores (OABSS) and international prostate symptom scores (IPSS)/quality of life (QOL) were questioned in all the 18 patients with OAB diagnosis. Their bladder mucosal tissues were taken from the random biopsy of bladder cancer suspected patients without any finding such as inflammation or carcinoma in ...
Source: Clinical Prostate Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research
Conclusions: These results highlight the role of OPG in reprogramming normal mammary epithelial cells to a tumorigenic state and suggest promising avenues for treating inflammatory breast cancer as well as highly invasive breast cancer with new therapeutic targets.
Source: BMC Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
More News: Allergy & Immunology | Bladder Cancer | Brain | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Cancer Therapy | Carcinoma | Chemotherapy | Drugs & Pharmacology | Epithelial Cancer | Genetics | Government | Immunotherapy | Microbiology | National Institutes of Health (NIH) | Neurology | Neuroscience | Pathology | Prostate Cancer | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cells | Study | Training | Universities & Medical Training | USA Health