Researchers find adult stem cell characteristics in aggressive cancers from different tissues

UCLA researchers have discovered  genetic similarities between the adult stem cells responsible for maintaining and repairing epithelial tissues — which line all of the organs and cavities inside the body — and the cells that drive aggressive epithelial cancers. Their findings could bring about a better understanding of how ag gressive, treatment-resistant cancers develop and progress, and could eventually lead to new drugs for a range of advanced epithelial cancers such as lung, prostate and bladder cancers. The study, led by senior authors Owen Witte and Thomas Graeber, both of the  UCLA Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, was published in the  journal Cell Reports.Epithelial cancers account for 80 to 90 percent of all cancers diagnosed in the United States, according to theNational Cancer Institute. Almost every type of epithelial cancer can develop into a highly aggressive form that metastasizes, or spreads rapidly to other organs in the body, and resists standard-of-care treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy.As part of a new and promising approach to cancer research, scientists are now seeking to uncover commonalities among these aggressive epithelial cancers in order to inform the development of “pan-cancer” therapies, those that can treat a range of cancers originating in different tissues.“Pinpointing the molecu...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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Xiaohui Xu, Congmin Ma, Zhihui Duan, Yanjiao Du and Chao Liu* Department of Neurology, Luoyang Central Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University, Luoyang, China Oxidized-low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) can induce injury of endothelial cells, causing atherosclerosis, which is an important initial event in several cardiovascular diseases. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as regulators of diverse biological processes, but their specific biological functions and biochemical mechanisms in ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell injury have not been well investigated. Here, we describe the initial functional an...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn this review, we summarize the mechanisms by which curcumin may affect EMT in cells under pathological conditions to understand its potential as a novel anti-tumor agent. Curcumin can exert chemo-preventive effects by inhibition and reversal of the EMT process through both TGF- β-dependent (e.g. in hepatoma and retinal pigment epithelial cancer) and -independent (e.g. in oral cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer, melanoma, prostate cancer, bladder cancer, thyroid cancer and lung cancer) pathways. Curcumin can also mitigate chemoresistance through EMT suppre...
Source: Cellular Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, osmotic burst of inflated complement-damaged cells may occur, but these bursts are most likely a consequence of metabolic collapse of the cell rather than the cause of cell death. The Complement Cell Death Mediator: A Concerted Action of Toxic Moieties Membrane pores caused by complement were first visualized by electron microscopy on red blood cell membranes as large ring structures (22). Similar lesions were viewed on E. coli cell walls (23). Over the years, ample information on the fine ultrastructure of the MAC that can activate cell death has been gathered (24) and has been recently further examined (...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Xiaoli Liu1, Qingfeng Fu1, Shijie Li1, Nan Liang1, Fang Li1, Changlin Li1, Chengqiu Sui1, Gianlorenzo Dionigi2 and Hui Sun1* 1Division of Thyroid Surgery, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Surgical Translational Medicine, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China 2Division for Endocrine and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood “G. Barresi”, University Hospital “G. Martino”, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Long non-coding RNA FOXD2 Adjacent Opposite Strand RNA 1 (FOXD2-AS1) has been widely reported to be implicat...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Conclusion: These new findings indicated that the CCL2/CCR2 axis promoted the progression of SACC cells via recruiting and reprogramming TAMs. Targeting TAMs by blocking the CCL2/CCR2 axis might be a prospective strategy for SACC therapy. Introduction Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed salivary gland malignancies, accounting for about 10% of all salivary gland neoplasms (1, 2). The typical characteristics of SACC include the recurrent growth, aggressive invasion, hematogenous metastasis, and chemotherapy refractory (2–4). Despite the great efforts paid in the treatm...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
We report that the disruption of excitation-contraction coupling contributes to impaired force generation in the mouse model of Sod1 deficiency. Briefly, we found a significant reduction in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) activity as well as reduced expression of proteins involved in calcium release and force generation. Another potential factor involved in EC uncoupling in Sod1-/- mice is oxidative damage to proteins involved in the contractile response. In summary, this study provides strong support for the coupling between increased oxidative stress and disruption of cellular excitation contraction mac...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
s The notion that androgens and androgen receptor (AR) signaling are the hallmarks of prostate cancer oncogenesis and disease progression is generally well accepted. What is more poorly understood is the role of AR signaling in other human malignancies. This special issue of Cancers initially reviews the role of AR in advanced prostate cancer, and then explores the potential importance of AR signaling in other epithelial malignancies. The first few articles focus on the use of novel AR-targeting therapies in castration-resistant prostate cancer and the mechanisms of resistance to novel antiandrogens, and they also outl...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Conclusions: Developmental BPA exposures heighten prostate cancer susceptibility in a complex dose- and lobe-specific manner. Importantly, elevated carcinogenic risk is found at doses that yield undetectable serum free BPA. Dose-specific epigenetic modifications of selected genes provide a mechanistic framework that may connect early-life BPA to later-life predisposition to prostate carcinogenesis. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1050 Received: 1 September 2016 Revised: 13 January 2017 Accepted: 19 January 2017 Published: 11 July 2017 Address correspondence to G.S. Prins, Dept. of Urology, University of Illinois at Chicago...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
In conclusion, (E1)-3s is an attractive candidate for T-cell redirected therapy of breast cancer due to its potent activity with potentially reduced side effects and the prevalence of Trop-2 expression associated with this disease. Tumor microarrays representing 117 breast cancer patients showed>85% positivity for Trop-2. Our immunohistochemical analysis of more than 50 individual TNBC patient specimens demonstrated 92% positivity, with 80% having moderate to strong Trop-2-staining. Combining checkpoint inhibitors with redirected T-cell therapy may represent a new paradigm for the management of solid cancers, including ...
Source: Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Poster Session Abstracts Source Type: research
We report a case of synchronous bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and prostatic carcinoma with CLL. A 74-year-old male who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia 2 years before, presented with recurrent urinary tract infection. Peripheral blood smear revealed leukocytosis with absolute lymphocytosis (absolute lymphocyte count: 37870 cells/mm³). Flow cytometric immunophenotyping revealed 75% abnormal lymphoid cells which were positive for CD 19, CD5, CD23, CD22, CD200, CD20 (moderate) with lambda light chain restriction and negative for CD3, CD10, FMC7, CD38, C...
Source: Malaysian Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Malays J Pathol Source Type: research
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