Addiction and Stress: An Allostatic View

Publication date: Available online 15 September 2018Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): George F. Koob, Jay SchulkinAbstractAllostasis, or stability through change, has most often been linked with challenges to homeostasis, in which repeated challenges or stressors produce sufficient allostatic load to generate an allostatic state that can ultimately lead to a disease state. The present review argues that the impact of stress on drug addiction fits with an allostatic model and represents a challenge to brain circuit regulatory mechanisms that underlie the emotional state of the animal. The central thesis is that stress leads to changes in corticotropin-releasing factor in the brain that impact addiction. Stress is further argued to impact all three stages of the addiction cycle—binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation—exposing the animal to an emotional allostatic load and allostatic state that forms the growing motivational pathology of addiction. Viewing addiction as an allostatic mechanism provides key insights into the ways in which dysregulated neurocircuitry that is involved in basic motivational systems can transition to pathophysiology.
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: The literature in the area of addiction is growing rapidly; however, the results are still mixed. Given the complexity of the problem, the goal should be the discovery of a minimal invasive and inexpensive diagnostic procedure to identify a prognostic and therapeutic target. The correlation of the expression of biomarkers on buccal cells could be valuable for the design of predictive and therapeutic strategies. PMID: 32468470 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Kaimara P, Plerou A, Deliyannis I Abstract Electroencephalography (EEG) systems and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are terms frequently involved in the field of neurological research. Under a technological point of view, BCI is considered to be a significant achievement within the frame of learning disabilities rehabilitation. Nevertheless, the specifications for efficient use for cognitive enhancement and its potential boundaries are under concern. Author's main objective is to discuss BCI concrete components and potential advances as well as depict potential limitations while using technological device...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
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Source: Steve Pavlina's Personal Development Blog - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Productivity Source Type: blogs
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Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
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Determining the clinically optimal dose in methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is a time-consuming procedure, which considers clinical signs and symptoms. To perform a quantitative trait locus association for identifying genetic variants for MMT dosage that underlie heroin addiction and methadone metabolism and then integrate several genotypic and phenotypic factors are potential predictors for clinically optimal MMT dose for personalized prescription. In total, 316 heroin-dependent patients undergoing MMT were recruited at the Addiction Center of the China Medical University Hospital. A multinomial logistic regression m...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research
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