Interstitial Cystitis: An Update on the Disease Process and Treatment.

Interstitial Cystitis: An Update on the Disease Process and Treatment. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2018 Sep 13;:1-10 Authors: Daniels AM, Schulte AR, Herndon CM Abstract Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic pain disorder of the bladder that is often underdiagnosed and mistreated. The difficulties in diagnosis stem from numerous theories regarding pathophysiology and etiology, including the breakdown of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer, altered permeability of the urothelium, uroinflammation, and neural up-regulation. Dysfunction of the bladder increases the struggle for proper treatment and continues to prove difficult for health care providers to correctly diagnose and manage IC. If diagnosed and/or managed inappropriately, IC may contribute to increased symptom burden and decreased quality of life with respect to activities of daily living. When evaluating a patient's clinical presentation in combination with predefined risk factors, a health care provider can better establish a true diagnosis of IC, which, in turn, leads to better management of IC-associated symptoms. This review will help health care providers better understand the disease process by discussing pathophysiology, pain pathways, and common symptoms of IC, with the goal of better aiding them in the proper diagnosis and treatment of patients with IC. PMID: 30212267 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy - Category: Palliative Care Tags: J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother Source Type: research

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ConclusionQualitative research has the potential to reveal and explain several aspects of CPP in women. The medical community may better accept knowledge gained from these studies if the methods are described more transparently in published articles.
Source: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
ConclusionsWomen with vulvodynia are substantially more likely to report voiding dysfunction and symptoms of urgency than women with no history of vulvar pain. These findings are independent of comorbid interstitial cystitis or history of UTIs.
Source: International Urogynecology Journal - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
Conclusions: Chronic idiopathic scrotal pain may be one of the variable presenting symptoms of IC/BPS. This scrotal pain may actually be referred pain from the bladder. Standard therapies for IC/BPS may be a treatment option for chronic idiopathic scrotal pain.
Source: Urology Annals - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractNeural injury, inflammation, or diseases commonly and adversely affect micturition reflex function that is organized by neural circuits in the CNS and PNS. One neuropeptide receptor system, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP;Adcyap1), and its cognate receptor, PAC1 (Adcyap1r1), have tissue-specific distributions in the lower urinary tract. PACAP and associated receptors are expressed in the LUT and exhibit changes in expression, distribution, and function in preclinical animal models of bladder pain syndrome (BPS)/interstitial cystitis (IC), a chronic, visceral pain syndrome characterized by ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract Neurotrophins (NTs), particularly Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), have attracted increasing attention in the context of visceral function for some years. Here, we examined current literature and produced a thorough review on the subject. After initial studies linking NGF to cystitis, it is now well-established that this neurotrophin (NT) is a key modulator of bladder pathologies, including Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis (BPS/IC) and Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS. NGF is upregulated in bladder tissue and its blockade results i...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research
The objective is to observe if it could be possible to use the apoptosis test to distinguish different aetiologies in chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS). A prospective study was done, 106 patients, 57 had previously been diagnosed with urological chronic pelvic pain (UCPP)/interstitial cystitis (IC) and 49 patients with gynaecological chronic pelvic pain (GCPP). Neoplastic cells cultures were exposed to the urine of patients with UCPP/IC and patients with GCPP. The urine ability to provoque apoptosis on them was analysed. The apoptosis degree was measured by quantifying the percentage of cells in phase subG0, determined b...
Source: Urologia Internationalis - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
In this study, we sought to determine whether altered TLR4 activation plays a role in pelvic/bladder pain seen in IC/BPS patients using our validated IC/BPS-like transgenic autoimmune cystitis model (URO-OVA). URO-OVA mice developed responses consistent with pelvic and bladder pain after cystitis induction, which was associated with increased splenocyte production of TLR4-mediated proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a. Increased spinal expression of mRNAs for proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-a, glial activation markers CD11b and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research
This study also found that Proteus DNA, a genus with many uropathogenic species (Drzewiecka, 2016), was more prevalent in women with OAB compared to asymptomatic controls (Curtiss et al., 2017). IC A recent study by Abernethy et al. suggested that the microbiome may play a role in IC (Abernethy et al., 2017). In this study, 16S rRNA analysis determined the microbiome of catheterized urine from women (n = 40) with IC was not dominated by a single genus and was less likely to contain Lactobacillus compared to asymptomatic women. Abernethy et al. also showed that L. acidophilus was associated with less severe scores on the ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease in Oman as in rest of Gulf Cooperation Council where metabolic syndrome is of high prevalence. DM is a foremost risk factor for urinary tract infections (UTIs). It is also linked to more complicated infections such as emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN), emphysematous pyelitis (EP), renal/perirenal abscess, emphysematous cystitis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, and renal papillary necrosis. The diagnosis of these cases is frequently delayed because the clinical manifestations are generic and not different from the typical triad of upper UTI, which include fev...
Source: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl Source Type: research
In this study, we quantified VEGF alternative splice variant expression in LUT tissues under control conditions and with CYP-induced cystitis. Using conscious cystometry, we further determined the functional effects of VEGFR2 receptor blockade on bladder function using intravesical instillation of a potent and selective VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (Ki8751, 1 mg/kg) in Wistar rats (male and female) with acute and chronic CYP-induced cystitis and controls (no CYP). With VEGFR2 receptor blockade, bladder capacity increased (p ≤ 0.01) in male and female control rats, as well as male and female rats with acute (p ≤ 0...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research
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