Genetic testing helps predict disease recurrence in myelodysplastic syndrome

(Washington University School of Medicine) A DNA-based analysis of blood cells soon after a stem cell transplant can predict likelihood of disease recurrence in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a group of cancerous disorders characterized by dysfunctional blood cells, according to new research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. Such a practice could help doctors identify patients at high risk of disease recurrence early after a transplant and help guide treatment decisions.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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Conclusions The discovery of JAK2V617F mutation in BCR-ABL1-negative MPNs by four different international cooperative groups in 2005 (2–5) led to significant insights on the pathogenesis of these disorders. In fact, this mutation results in a gain-of-function with activation of cytokine and growth factor receptors, and thus of the downstream JAK-STAT pathway (79, 95–98). The JAK2 point mutation in exon 12, present in a small percentage of patients with PV, is able to induce the MPN phenotype through the same pathogenic mechanism (6, 7). In 2006 the MPLW515L/K was reported in ET and PMF patients (44, 45) and d...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study proposed a pilot study of a new tool for a reliable and accurate stratification of patients with acute leukemia based on an integrative model of leukemia behavior, cell characterization, and clinical features, in addition, to an evaluation of intra-tumor and inter-tumor heterogeneity. Together our approach allows us to introduce an integrative quantitative approach to use zebrafish and tumor characterization as a prediction tool for the behavior of acute leukemia in young adults. Materials and Methods Animal Care and Handling Zebrafish wild-type (A/B and TAB5) adults were raised and maintained according to st...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Authors: Bewersdorf JP, Stahl M, Zeidan AM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Immune system evasion is essential for tumor cell survival and is mediated by the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and the activation of inhibitory immune checkpoints. While immune checkpoint-based therapy yielded impressive results in several advanced solid malignancies such as melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer, its role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is still evolving. Areas covered: Here we review the immunology in the tumor microenvironment in the bone marrow and discuss the current preclinical an...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: Best Practice &Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Chong Chyn Chua, Shaun Fleming, Andrew H. WeiABSTRACTTherapy-related myeloid neoplasm (t-MN) is a rare but devastating consequence of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy used for the treatment of solid cancers and various hematologic malignancies. Our current understanding of the etiology is that hematopoietic clones that are contemporaneous with the primary cancer and resistant to the cytotoxic exposure have the potential to undergo selective expansion and transformation to t-MN. Consequently, a large proport...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Haematology - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
This study showed that potential vicious cycles underlying ARDs are quite diverse and unique, triggered by diverse and unique factors that do not usually progress with age, thus casting doubts on the possibility of discovering the single molecular cause of aging and developing the single anti-aging pill. Rather, each disease appears to require an individual approach. However, it still cannot be excluded that some or all of these cycles are triggered by fundamental processes of aging, such as chronic inflammation or accumulation of senescent cells. Nevertheless, experimental data showing clear cause and effect relationships...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
ppe Rossi Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, current therapeutic results are still unsatisfactory in untreated high-risk patients and poorer in those with primary refractory or relapsed disease. In older patients, reluctance by clinicians to treat unfit patients, higher AML cell resistance related to more frequent adverse karyotype and/or precedent myelodysplastic syndrome, and preferential involvement of chemorefractory early hemopoietic precursors in the pathogenesis of the disease further account for poor prognosis, with median survival lower than six month...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
This article updates the initial SFGM-TC recommendations, proposed in 2013, that were focused on the use of DLI. Doses of DLI in the context of haplo-identical stem cell transplantation are now indicated. We confirm that remaining mobilized stem cells may be used as classical DLI. The definition and the place of preemptive and prophylactic DLI are precisely given. Recommendations regarding the quality of thawed DLI as well as necessary clinical and biological follow-up are also described in detail. PMID: 30580911 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Bulletin du Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Bull Cancer Source Type: research
Recurring chromosome abnormalities are frequent events in cancer and are especially prevalent in hematologic neoplasms. Somatic heterozygous deletions on chromosome 20q are detected in a variety of hematopoietic malignancies including myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), classical myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), MDS/MPN overlap disorders such as chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), and acute leukemias. Del(20q) is especially prevalent in MPN patients (~10-15%), where it is the most commonly detected cytogenetic abnormality associated with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and post-polycythemia vera myelofibrosis (MF). This sugg...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 635. Myeloproliferative Syndromes: Basic Science: Mechanisms of Development and Progression Source Type: research
This study may open up new potential therapeutic avenues for the treatment of patients with chronic infection, inflammatory diseases, and cancer.DisclosuresNo relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 506. Hematopoiesis and Stem Cells: Microenvironment, Cell Adhesion, and Stromal Stem Cells Source Type: research
Introduction: Real-world survival for pts with MDS treated with HMAs is substantially inferior than the landmark AZA-001 trial (median OS, 11-16 and 24.5 months, respectively). The reasons behind this gap remain unclear. Clinical use of HMAs differs from traditional chemotherapy in that multiple HMA cycles are generally required before responses are observed, therapy is continued even in the presence of significant cytopenias, and therapy must be continued to sustain response. We hypothesized that practice at academic hospital setting or prior experience of providers in treating MDS pts (more specifically the number of pts...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 904. Outcomes Research-Malignant Conditions: Outcomes in Myeloid Malignancies and Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Source Type: research
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