Non-pharmacological factors that determine drug use and addiction

Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Serge H. Ahmed, Aldo Badiani, Klaus A. Miczek, Christian P. MüllerAbstractBased on their pharmacological properties, psychoactive drugs are supposed to take control of the natural reward system to finally drive compulsory drug seeking and consumption. However, psychoactive drugs are not used in an arbitrary way as pure pharmacological reinforcement would suggest, but rather in a highly specific manner depending on non-pharmacological factors. While pharmacological effects of psychoactive drugs are well studied, neurobiological mechanisms of non-pharmacological factors are less well understood. Here we review the emerging neurobiological mechanisms beyond pharmacological reinforcement which determine drug effects and use frequency. Important progress was made on the understanding of how the character of an environment and social stress determine drug self-administration. This is expanded by new evidence on how behavioral alternatives and opportunities for drug instrumentalization generate different patterns of drug choice. Emerging evidence suggests that the neurobiology of non-pharmacological factors strongly determines pharmacological and behavioral drug action and may, thus, give rise for an expanded system’s approach of psychoactive drug use and addiction.
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Current literature suggests an important and growing concern for the abuse of PRG. Male sex, psychiatric and/or addiction history, including opioid addiction, may be potential risk factors for the development of addictive behaviours associated with PRG. PMID: 32471706 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: L Encephale - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Encephale Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The literature in the area of addiction is growing rapidly; however, the results are still mixed. Given the complexity of the problem, the goal should be the discovery of a minimal invasive and inexpensive diagnostic procedure to identify a prognostic and therapeutic target. The correlation of the expression of biomarkers on buccal cells could be valuable for the design of predictive and therapeutic strategies. PMID: 32468470 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Kaimara P, Plerou A, Deliyannis I Abstract Electroencephalography (EEG) systems and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are terms frequently involved in the field of neurological research. Under a technological point of view, BCI is considered to be a significant achievement within the frame of learning disabilities rehabilitation. Nevertheless, the specifications for efficient use for cognitive enhancement and its potential boundaries are under concern. Author's main objective is to discuss BCI concrete components and potential advances as well as depict potential limitations while using technological device...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
arquardt Frank Edlich Cancer therapies induce differential cell responses, ranging from efficient cell death to complete stress resistance. The BCL-2 proteins BAX and BAK govern the cellular decision between survival and mitochondrial apoptosis. Therefore, the status of BAX/BAK regulation can predict the cellular apoptosis predisposition. Relative BAX/BAK localization was analyzed in tumor and corresponding non-tumor samples from 34 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Key transcriptome changes and gene expression profiles related to the status of BAX regulation were applied to two independent cohorts including o...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
esse Elizabeth Vincan An emerging theme for Wnt-addicted cancers is that the pathway is regulated at multiple steps via various mechanisms. Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major risk factor for liver cancer, as is deregulated Wnt signaling, however, the interaction between these two causes is poorly understood. To investigate this interaction, we screened the effect of the various HBV proteins for their effect on Wnt/β-catenin signaling and identified the pre-core protein p22 as a novel and potent activator of TCF/β-catenin transcription. The effect of p22 on TCF/β-catenin trans...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Pregnant and postpartum women with opiate use disorder present a challenge in perinatal care. It is important for health care teams to provide sensitive and compassionate evidence-based care for these women, who often are stigmatized during the prenatal, delivery, and postpartum periods. Women with opiate use disorder are at risk for inadequate prenatal and postpartum care and for complications. Infants are at risk for neonatal abstinence syndrome and are expected to require neonatal intensive care. Pain management during labor and for cesarean delivery requires consultation and collaboration with providers who have expert...
Source: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics - Category: OBGYN Authors: Source Type: research
The world of business can provide an endless stream of activities, whether you have a job or run your own company. If you read books or take courses on advancing your career or growing your business, you’ll pick up even more to-do ideas. I usually enjoy the world of business, but in order to keep my life in balance, I need to regularly refocus on the big picture and avoid drowning in busywork. Sometimes I have to step back from business to regain perspective. Business can be addictive, whether it’s going well or not. When the results aren’t flowing, there’s a scramble to fix that. And when the...
Source: Steve Pavlina's Personal Development Blog - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Productivity Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 28 May 2020Source: CellAuthor(s): Lauren M. Slosky, Yushi Bai, Krisztian Toth, Caroline Ray, Lauren K. Rochelle, Alexandra Badea, Rahul Chandrasekhar, Vladimir M. Pogorelov, Dennis M. Abraham, Namratha Atluri, Satyamaheshwar Peddibhotla, Michael P. Hedrick, Paul Hershberger, Patrick Maloney, Hong Yuan, Zibo Li, William C. Wetsel, Anthony B. Pinkerton, Lawrence S. Barak, Marc G. Caron
Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Non-substance addictive behaviors may involve repetitive rewarding behaviors including gambling, gaming, sexual activities, internet-use, and buying-shopping. In addictions, there exists diminished control over participation in the behaviors and continuation of the behaviors despite experiencing negative consequences. Addictive participation in behaviors typically results in distress and functional impairment in personal, relational, occupational, educational or other life domains. Increases in cue-reactivity and craving and decreases in inhibitory control may represent pivotal mechanisms in addictions, especially when beh...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Abstract Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are key events in signal transduction since they affect protein function by regulating their abundance and/or activity. PTMs involve the covalent attachment of functional groups to specific amino acids. Since they tend to be generally reversible, PTMs serve as regulators of signal transduction pathways. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are major signaling proteins that undergo multiple types of PTMs. In this Review, we focus on the opioid receptors, members of GPCR family A, and highlight recent advances in the field that have underscored the importance of PTMs i...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research
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