Recent measles case in Santa Monica sheds light on risk of outbreak

The recent news about an international tourist with measles who visited Santa Monica raised anew concerns about the potential for an outbreak of the disease, which has been all but eradicated in the United States.Measles remains endemic in many parts of the world, including popular tourist destinations in parts of Western Europe, and travelers need to be aware of the risks posed by the highly contagious disease. In the Santa Monica case, the traveler had visited several restaurants and hotels in Santa Monica from Aug. 8-10.UCLA HealthDr. Deborah Lehman“Measles is one of the most contagious disease we have, and the communicability is so high,’’ said Dr.Deborah Lehman, a professor of clinical pediatrics at theDavid Geffen School of Medicine at  UCLA and an expert in infectious diseases. “If a person in a restaurant has measles, even if you are not sitting next that person, you can still get infected if you do not have immunity to measles.”Thenumber of measles cases in the U.S. has remained relatively stable since 2015, although 214 cases have been reported so far in 2018, more than in any full year since 2014, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. However, in Europe,  more than 41,000 cases of measles were reported in the first six months of 2018, far exceeding the nearly 5,300 cases reported for all of 2016, according to the World Health Organization. At least 37 deaths in Europe have been attributed to measles so ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of leptospirosis in pets and in humans in peridomestic settings in Nicaragua between 2014 and 2016. Methods: The samples were taken in areas where cases were confirmed in humans using non-probabilistic sampling in 10 of the country's 17 departments. This included 112 urine samples from pets, 129 water samples, and 69 soil samples in order to isolate leptospires in Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris (EMJH) medium. Furthermore, the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was applied to 263 samples of animal serum, and 88 isolates were analy...
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research
Conclusion: The VAE-RS is useful to monitor immunization safety. However, municipal services must increase adherence to the system and perform the required investigation and reporting of VAE, with timely and adequate completion of the VAE-RS form. Knowledge regarding VAE can be used in the daily routine of surveillance services, improving the safety of immunobiological agents. PMID: 31093041 [PubMed]
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research
Conclusion: Sexually-active adults in the United States, especially young men, lack awareness of sexual and vertical transmission of Zika Virus. Given the likely endemic nature of Zika, this low-risk perception is an important prevention challenge. Zika prevention messaging should address lesser known transmission routes, emphasize male education, and promote correct and consistent condom use. PMID: 31093071 [PubMed]
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research
Conclusions: No high-quality data were found on cost-effectiveness of interventions on TB diagnostics/screening, treatment, or prevention in homeless people. However, active searching for cases via mobile screening, and financial incentives, could help increase treatment adherence, and the use of IGRA helps boost detection. TB in homeless people is neglected worldwide, especially in developing countries, where this disease tends to afflict more people made vulnerable by their precarious living conditions. Public funding mechanisms should be created to develop cross-sectoral actions targeting homeless people, as the complex...
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research
Conclusion: In Mexico, adults who are of short stature have unequal living conditions when compared to those of average or high stature, and this could drive increases in health inequity. PMID: 31093058 [PubMed]
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research
Authors: Rashidi S, Mojtahedi Z, Shahriari B, Kalantar K, Ghalamfarsa G, Mohebali M, Hatam G Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the most severe form of leishmaniasis, is caused by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum. The infected dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) are important reservoirs for VL in humans, so the diagnosis, treatment and vaccination of the infected dogs will ultimately decrease the rate of human VL. Proteomics and immunoproteomics techniques have facilitated the introduction of novel drug, vaccine and diagnostic targets. Our immunoproteomic study was conducted to identify new ...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research
ConclusionsThere are significant disparities in HPV vaccine series completion rates among males based on race and insurance, unchanged based on era of initiation or visit frequency.
Source: Academic Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The outcome of measles outbreak in previously vaccinated oncology and post-HSCT pediatric patients during chemotherapy and immunosuppressant medication was severe. Complete loss of protective immunity induced by measles vaccine during chemotherapy was the potential reason. Improved infection control practice was critical for the prevention of measles in malignancy patients and transplant recipients. PMID: 28524832 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
Abstract Measles, or rubeola, is a highly infectious, acute viral illness of childhood that is considered eliminated in the USA but has reemerged in the past few years. Globally, an estimated 20 million cases of measles continue to occur, and it remains a leading cause of death among young children. It is rare in the USA and other first world countries, but numerous outbreaks have occurred in the USA recently, due to a combination of factors including poor vaccine coverage and importation of cases among travelers returning from endemic areas. The diagnosis of measles is usually made clinically, when an individual...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Nothing says First World city like Seattle does. Come for the cachet, stay for the Seahawks, and give a nod to the Starbucks and the Amazon and the mothership that is Microsoft just to the east. There’s nothing this so-hip-it-hurts town lacks, it seems—except perhaps for common sense. If you’re looking for that, the developing world is a far better bet. That’s the inescapable conclusion on what should be a very good week for public health—and childhood health in particular—with the World Health Organization and other groups announcing on July 24 that Nigeria has gone a full year without ...
Source: TIME.com: Top Science and Health Stories - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized anti-vaxxers Nigeria polio Seattle vaccines Source Type: news
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