Molecular subgroups and B7-H4 expression levels predict responses to dendritic cell vaccines in glioblastoma: an exploratory randomized phase II clinical trial

AbstractDendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination is a promising approach for active-specific immunotherapy, but is currently of limited efficacy. The safety and effectiveness of a DC vaccine (DCV) loaded with glioblastoma stem cell-like (GSC) antigens was assessed in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial, 43 GBM patients were randomized after surgery at a 1:1 ratio to receive either DCV (n = 22) or normal saline placebo (n = 21). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analysed. Participants were stratified into different molecular subgroups based on the mutation (MT) status of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1/2) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). Plasma cytokine levels, tumor-infil trating lymphocyte numbers and immune co-inhibitory molecules PD-L1 and B7-H4 were also assessed. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that DCV treatment significantly prolonged OS (p = 0.02) after adjusting for IDH1 and TERT promoter MT and B7-H4 expression, primary vs recurrent GBM. Among IDH1wild type (WT) TERTMT patients, DCV treatment significantly prolonged OS (p 
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Abstract The cancer stem cell hypothesis states that tumors are heterogeneous and comprised of several different cell types that have a range of reproductive potentials. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), represent one class of cells that has both reproductive potential and the ability to differentiate. These cells are thought to drive the progression of aggressive and recurring cancers since they give rise to all other constituent cells within a tumor. With the development of immunotherapy in the last decade, the specific targeting of CSCs has become feasible and presents a novel therapeutic approach. In this paper, we co...
Source: Mathematical Biosciences - Category: Statistics Authors: Tags: Math Biosci Source Type: research
This study elucidates the potential to use mitochondria from different donors (PAMM) to treat UVR stress and possibly other types of damage or metabolic malfunctions in cells, resulting in not only in-vitro but also ex-vivo applications. Gene Therapy in Mice Alters the Balance of Macrophage Phenotypes to Slow Atherosclerosis Progression https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/07/gene-therapy-in-mice-alters-the-balance-of-macrophage-phenotypes-to-slow-atherosclerosis-progression/ Atherosclerosis causes a sizable fraction of all deaths in our species. It is the generation of fatty deposits in blood vessel...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, we found that cofilin competes with tau for direct microtubule binding in vitro, in cells, and in vivo, which inhibits tau-induced microtubule assembly. Genetic reduction of cofilin mitigates tauopathy and synaptic defects in Tau-P301S mice and movement deficits in tau transgenic C. elegans. The pathogenic effects of cofilin are selectively mediated by activated cofilin, as active but not inactive cofilin selectively interacts with tubulin, destabilizes microtubules, and promotes tauopathy. These results therefore indicate that activated cofilin plays an essential intermediary role in neurotoxic signaling th...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Recent successes in cancer immunotherapy have been tempered by sub-optimal clinical responses in the majority of patients. The impaired anti-tumor immune responses observed in these patients are likely a consequence of immune system dysfunction contributed to by a variety of factors that include, but are not limited to, diminished antigen presentation/detection, leukopenia, a coordinated network of immunosuppressive cell surface proteins, cytokines and cellular mediators. Monocytes that have diminished or no HLA-DR expression, called CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg monocytes, have emerged as important mediators of tumor-induced immunosu...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study has implications in increasing the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy in MM.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study opens the field for combining CSC-targeted immunotherapy with repeated low doses chemotherapy as an effective strategy to improve anticancer immune responses.
Source: Molecular Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Marjolein Schluck1,2, Roel Hammink1,2, Carl G. Figdor1,2,3, Martijn Verdoes1,3*† and Jorieke Weiden1,2,3*† 1Department of Tumor Immunology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands 2Division of Immunotherapy, Oncode Institute, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands 3Institute for Chemical Immunology, Nijmegen, Netherlands Traditional tumor vaccination approaches mostly focus on activating dendritic cells (DCs) by providing them with a source of tumor antigens and/or adjuvants, which in turn activate tumor-reactive T c...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion MTDH is pro-oncogenic factor playing multifaceted and diverse roles in cancer progression. Its association and central role in regulating signaling pathways such a MAPK, wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/AkT, NF-κβ pathways in various cancers shows that it plays a vital role in metastasis. MTDH contribution to chemo and radiotherapy resistance provides a new direction for the development of anticancer therapeutics. Multiple mechanisms converge to promote expression of MTDH in cancers. Further studies are therefore warranted to determine whether the elevated MTDH expression has prognostic value for development...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions Toxoplasma gondii infection induces a strong innate and adaptive immune response. While the innate immunity is important for controlling the early stages of the infection (Yarovinsky, 2014), the adaptive immunity is critical for restricting the parasite replication during the later stages (Gazzinelli et al., 1992). Amongst the adaptive immune subsets, CD8 T cells are the primary effector cells while CD4 T cells play an essential helper role to maintain long-term immunity (Casciotti et al., 2002). Notwithstanding, a robust CD8 T cell immunity induced during acute phase of infection, does not result in the total...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Hui Zhou, Xiaoyan Fu, Qian Li and Ting Niu* Department of Hematology and Research Laboratory of Hematology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China Background: Immune checkpoint inhibition therapy with monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), including nivolumab and pembrolizumab, has demonstrated powerful clinical efficacy in the treatment of advanced cancers. However, there is no evidence-based systematic review on the safety and efficacy of anti-PD-1 antibody in treating lymphoma. Methods: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of nivolumab/pembrolizumab, we analyzed clin...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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