Factors affecting gray wolf (Canis lupus) encounter rate with elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park

Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Despite encounter rates being a key component of kill rate, few studies of large carnivore predation have quantified encounter rates with prey, the factors that influence them, and the relationship between encounter rate and kill rate. The study ’s primary motivation was to determine the relationship between prey density and encounter rate in understanding the mechanism behind the functional response. Elk (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758) population decline and variable weather in northern Yellowstone National Park provided an opportunity t o examine how these factors influenced wolf (Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758) encounter rates with elk. We explored how factors associated with wolf kill rate and encounter rate in other systems (season, elk density, elk group density, average elk group size, snow depth, wolf pack size, and territory siz e) influenced wolf–elk encounter rate in Yellowstone National Park. Elk density was the only factor significantly correlated with wolf–elk encounter rate, and we found a nonlinear density-dependent relationship that may be a mechanism for a functional response in this system. Encounter rate was correlated with number of elk killed during early winter but not late winter. Weak effects of snow depth and elk group size on encounter rate suggest that these factors influence kill rate via hunting success because kill rate is the product of hunting success and encounter rate.
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - Category: Zoology Authors: Source Type: research

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AbstractThis guideline aims to describe the complement system and the functions of the constituent pathways, with  particular focus on primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) and their diagnosis and management. The complement system is a crucial part of the innate immune system, with multiple membrane-bound and soluble components. There are three distinct enzymatic cascade pathways within the complement system, the classical, alternative and lectin pathways, which converge with the cleavage of central C3. Complement deficiencies account for ~5% of PIDs. The clinical consequences of inherited defects in the complement system...
Source: Journal of Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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Source: Renal Failure - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Ren Fail Source Type: research
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Source: Trends in Urology and Men's Health - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Rheumatology Source Type: research
Authors: Shima N, Nakamura J, Saito K, Kamata Y, Nagatani K, Nagashima T, Iwamoto M, Akine D, Saito T, Sato K, Minota S Abstract A 72-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with bilateral pleural effusions. She had a 31-year history of systemic lupus erythematosus and had been treated with prednisolone and azathioprine. Pleural fluid culture revealed Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae infection. This pathogen rarely infects humans but is commonly found in the gut flora of reptiles, especially snakes. Our patient had not come in contact with reptiles. Despite antibiotic therapies and negative pleural cultures,...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Butyrylation plays a crucial role in the cellular processes. Due to limit of techniques, it is a challenging task to identify histone butyrylation sites on a large scale. To fill the gap, we propose an approach based on information entropy and machine learning for computationally identifying histone butyrylation sites. The proposed method achieves 0.92 of area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve over the training set by 3-fold cross validation and 0.80 over the testing set by independent test. Feature analysis implies that amino acid residues in the down/upstream of butyrylation sites would exhibit spec...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
e;zquiz Aguirre S, Sánchez Landa E Abstract INTRODUCTION: whether hypovitaminosis D is an overarching cause of increased mortality or a prognostic marker of poor health has not been well elucidated. OBJECTIVES: we sought to determine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)-D3] levels with the clinical biochemical parameters and mortality risk in chronic diseases. METHODS: we reviewed the clinical charts and collected the clinical biochemical parameters of patients diagnosed with chronic conditions who had at least one 25-(OH)-D3 determination, with or without calcium and vitamin D su...
Source: Nutricion Hospitalaria - Category: Nutrition Authors: Tags: Nutr Hosp Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Autoimmunity ReviewsAuthor(s): Irene Cecchi, Carlos Perez-Sanchez, Savino Sciascia, Massimo Radin, Ivan Arias de la Rosa, Nuria Barbarroja Puerto, Luca Scudeler, Laura Perez-Sanchez, Alejandra Maria Patiño Trives, Maria Angeles Aguirre Zamorano, Elisa Menegatti, Dario Roccatello, Chary Lopez-Pedrera
Source: Autoimmunity Reviews - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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Source: The Rheumatologist - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: Conditions Research Reviews SLE (Lupus) Access to care adherence Biomarkers clinical trials heterogeneity Socioeconomic Impact Source Type: research
Arthritis&Rheumatology, EarlyView.
Source: Arthritis and Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: Letters Source Type: research
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Source: Oman Medical Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: Oman Med J Source Type: research
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