Association of ADHD medications with the risk of cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis

AbstractThis meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications and risk of sudden death/arrhythmia, stroke, myocardial infarction as well as all-cause death. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from 1950 to May 2018. All observational studies that the exposure of interest was ADHD medications, the outcome of interest was sudden death/arrhythmia, stroke, myocardial infarction as well as all-cause death, and the study reported relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were included. Pooled RRs were estimated by random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine the effects of study design, population, Country, follow-up duration, female proportion, covariates adjustment on the risk of sudden death/arrhythmia. Eight articles with ten studies (4,221,929 participants) were included in this meta-analysis about the association between ADHD medications and risk of sudden death/arrhythmia. The pooled RRs with 95% CIs of sudden death/arrhythmia for ADHD medications were 1.39 (1.06, 1.83). The result of the cohort study was 1.24 (0.84, 1.83). The pooled RRs between ADHD medications and stroke, myocardial infarction, all-cause death were 1.00 (0.74, 1.35), 0.91 (0.79, 1.05), 0.89 (0.54, 1.45), respectively. As for methylphenidate, the pooled RRs between methylphenidate and sudden death/arrhythmia, stroke, myocardial infarction, all-cause d...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

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Conclusions Ankle plantar flexor and hip flexor strength had the largest contribution to gait velocity. Future research may wish to refocus strength assessment and treatment to target the ankle plantar flexors and hip flexors. To Claim CME Credits Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at CME Objectives Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) Differentiate the contribution that lower limb strength of each muscle group has on gait velocity after stroke; (2) Appraise the relationship between isometric strength and joint power generati...
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: CME Article . 2019 Series . Number 10 Source Type: research
Fall prevention requires a multifaceted approach that should include individual risk assessment and intervention strategies. Exercise interventions may mitigate most risk factors for falls (eg, balance impairment, gait impairment, and muscle weakness). Numerous systematic reviews or meta-analyses have assessed the effectiveness of exercise interventions among people with various types of neurological disorders; however, the evidence obtained has not been synthesized into an overview. Therefore, the present systematic review assessed systematic reviews of exercise intervention for fall prevention among people with neurologi...
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Literature Review Source Type: research
Abstract This special issue is going to introduce the origins of the "Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis (RNAS)" which can be traced back to 1996. RNAS was originally a collaboration of scientists from China and Philippines, and then expanded to Cambodia, Indonesia, Japan and Laos, with focusing on research and control of schistosomiasis japonica. However, at its fifth meeting in Bali, Indonesia in 2005, more countries such as Vietnam, Thailand and Korea were brought on board along with a string of neglected tropical diseases such as cysticercosis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis and fascioliasis, ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Abstract In 2005, the network decided to increase its number of target diseases to include other helminthic zoonoses such as fascioliasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis and in the process expanding membership to include South Korea, Vietnam, Thailand and Japan. NTDs were eventually included as awareness is heightened on these diseases affecting poor and developing countries. Researches on clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis unravel the mechanism by which these diseases eventually predispose to cholangiocarcinoma. The liver cancer associated with these liver fluke infections necessi...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Abstract From the time it was conceptualized in 1998 to the present, RNAS+ has largely concentrated on research that will generate results to facilitate control, prevention and elimination of its target diseases. Diagnostics has remained an active field of research in order to develop tools that are appropriate for each stage from the first efforts until attempts to block transmission. For example, with regard to schistosomiasis, chemotherapy has excellent impact on morbidity, while better diagnostics and vaccine research have been promoted to complement the other components of the control programme. The need for ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Abstract Over the past 20 years, RNAS+ has been generating research results from highly collaborative projects meant to promote and advance understanding in various aspects of schistosomiasis. Epidemiological studies in endemic countries like the Philippines, the People's Republic of China (PR China), the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and Cambodia clarified the role of reservoir hosts in transmission and the use of spatio-temporal methods such as remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) in surveillance of schistosomiasis. Morbidity studies proposed factors that might influence develop...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
In conclusion, the practice of stroke neurologists is consistent with and supports the available evidence from observational studies on the time of initiation of NOACs. Our findings provide a guide for clinicians who manage nvAF-related stroke until more robust evidence from randomized controlled trials is available. PMID: 31531241 [PubMed]
Source: Neurology Research International - Category: Neurology Tags: Neurol Res Int Source Type: research
Conclusions: There is the strongest level of evidence (Level 1a) suggesting methylphenidate may alleviate cognitive impairments in adults with brain injury. However, longitudinal studies are warranted examining the effectiveness and safety of long-term methylphenidate use in this population. PMID: 31526025 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Brain Injury - Category: Neurology Tags: Brain Inj Source Type: research
ConclusionsEGb might induce ERM/MLC phosphorylation and increase the cell-cell junction gaps to cause a reversible increase of the BBB permeability via A1R signaling pathway. Our results may contribute to better use of EGb in the treatment of brain diseases.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionQHRGF may regulate the local immune response and inflammatory factors mainly through the MAPK signal pathway. For autoimmune uveitis, QHRGF may be a promising, long-lasting treatment strategy.
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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