Viruses, Vol. 10, Pages 439: Catching Chances: The Movement to Be on the Ground and Research Ready before an Outbreak

Viruses, Vol. 10, Pages 439: Catching Chances: The Movement to Be on the Ground and Research Ready before an Outbreak Viruses doi: 10.3390/v10080439 Authors: David Brett-Major James Lawler After more than 28,000 Ebola virus disease cases and at least 11,000 deaths in West Africa during the 2014–2016 epidemic, the world remains without a licensed vaccine or therapeutic broadly available and demonstrated to alleviate suffering. This deficiency has been felt acutely in the two, short, following years with two Ebola virus outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and a Marburg virus outbreak in Uganda. Despite billions of U.S. dollars invested in developing medical countermeasures for filoviruses in the antecedent decades, resulting in an array of preventative, diagnostic, and therapeutic products, none are available on commercial shelves. This paper explores why just-in-time research efforts in the field during the West Africa epidemic failed, as well as some recent initiatives to prevent similarly lost opportunities.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100Author(s): Jackson Emanuel, Andrea Marzi, Heinz FeldmannAbstractThe Filoviridae are a family of negative-strand RNA viruses that include several important human pathogens. Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus are well-known filoviruses which cause life-threatening viral hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. In addition to severe pathogenesis, filoviruses also exhibit a propensity for human-to-human transmission by close contact, posing challenges to containment and crisis management. Past outbreaks, in particular the recent West African EBOV ep...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Filoviruses (family Filoviridae) include five ebolaviruses and Marburg virus. These pathogens cause a rapidly progressing and severe viral disease with high mortality rates (generally 30–90%). Outbreaks of filovirus disease are sporadic and, until recently, were limited to less than 500 cases. However, the 2013–2016 epidemic in western Africa, caused by Ebola virus (EBOV), illustrated the potential of filovirus outbreaks to escalate to a much larger scale (over 28,000 suspected cases). mAbs against the envelope glycoprotein represent a promising therapeutic platform for managing filovirus infections. However, m...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Protein Structure and Folding Source Type: research
Publication date: 2018 Source:Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100 Author(s): Jackson Emanuel, Andrea Marzi, Heinz Feldmann The Filoviridae are a family of negative-strand RNA viruses that include several important human pathogens. Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus are well-known filoviruses which cause life-threatening viral hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. In addition to severe pathogenesis, filoviruses also exhibit a propensity for human-to-human transmission by close contact, posing challenges to containment and crisis management. Past outbreaks, in particular the recent West African EBOV epidemi...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018 Source:Advances in Virus Research Author(s): Jackson Emanuel, Andrea Marzi, Heinz Feldmann The Filoviridae are a family of negative-strand RNA viruses that include several important human pathogens. Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus are well-known filoviruses which cause life-threatening viral hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. In addition to severe pathogenesis, filoviruses also exhibit a propensity for human-to-human transmission by close contact, posing challenges to containment and crisis management. Past outbreaks, in particular the recent West Afri...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - Category: Virology Source Type: research
ConclusionCommunities in Uganda affected by filovirus outbreaks have moderate knowledge about these diseases and have a positive attitude towards practices to prevent and control Ebola and Marburg viral diseases. The public health sector should enhance this community knowledge gap to empower them more by supplying educational materials for epidemic preparedness in future using appropriate communication channels as proposed by the communities.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion Ecological niche modeling techniques have been widely used in predicting where disease outbreaks are likely to occur, more specifically where species have suitable living conditions depending on their environmental factors. The MaxEnt modeling algorithm uses presence only occurrence data and has been useful to estimate species’ niche in environmental space where absence records for a species are not available as it is the case with filoviruses. Given the public and global importance of filoviruses, developing models that predict where they are likely to occur is very important, and efforts in this directi...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions/SignificanceEvoPrinter allows for the assessment of lineage complexity within Flavivirus or Filovirus outbreaks, identification of recombinant strains, highlights sequences that have undergone host cell A-to-I editing, and identifies unique input and database SNPs within highly conserved sequences. EvoPrinter ’s ability to superimpose alignment data from hundreds of strains onto a single genome has allowed us to identify unique Zika virus sublineages that are currently spreading in South, Central and North America, the Caribbean, and in China. This new set of integrated alignment programs should serve as ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractThe filoviruses, Ebola virus (EBOV), and Marburg virus (MARV), are among the most pathogenic viruses known to man and the causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in Africa with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Nearly 30,000 infections were observed in the latest EBOV epidemic in West Africa; previous outbreaks were much smaller, typically only affecting less than a few hundred people. Compared to other diseases such as AIDS or Malaria with millions of cases annually, filovirus hemorrhagic fever (FHF) is one of the neglected infectious diseases. There are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics available...
Source: Virus Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
As observed during the 2013–2016 Ebola virus disease epidemic, containment of filovirus outbreaks is challenging and made more difficult by the lack of approved vaccine or therapeutic options. Marburg and Ravn viruses are highly virulent and cause severe and frequently lethal disease in humans. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a platform technology in wide use for autoimmune and oncology indications. Previously, we described human mAbs that can protect mice from lethal challenge with Marburg virus. We demonstrate that one of these mAbs, MR191-N, can confer a survival benefit of up to 100% to Marburg or Ravn virus&nda...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Ebola and Marburg filovirus disease outbreaks have typically occurred as isolated events, confined to central Africa. However, the recent Ebola epidemic spread to several African countries, and caused 11,000 deaths. That epidemic underscored the need to develop vaccines and therapeutics that could be used to fight future disease outbreaks. Now new research suggests that antibodies to filoviruses from individuals who have survived these diseases may offer protection -- not only against the particular filovirus that infected an individual, but against other filoviruses, as well.
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - Category: Science Source Type: news
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