Generation of Pancreatic β-cells From iPSCs and their Potential for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Replacement Therapy and Modelling

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes DOI: 10.1055/a-0661-5873Diabetes type 1 (T1D) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by permanent destruction of the insulin-secreting β-cells in pancreatic islets, resulting in a deficiency of the glucose-lowering hormone insulin and persisting high blood glucose levels. Insulin has to be replaced by regular subcutaneous injections, and blood glucose level must be monitored due to the risk of hyperglycemia. Recently, transplantation of new pancreatic β-cells into T1D patients has come to be considered one of the most potentially effective treatments for this disease. Therefore, much effort has focused on understanding the regulation of β-cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent a valuable source for T1D modelling and cell replacement therapy because of their ability to differentiate into all cell types in vitro. Recent advances in stem cell-based therapy and gene-editing tools have enabled the generation of functionally adult pancreatic β-cells derived from iPSCs. Although animal and human pancreatic development and β-cell physiology have significant differences, animal models represent an important tool in evaluating the therapeutic potential of iPSC-derived β-cells on type 1 diabetes treatment. This review outlines the recent progress in iPSC-derived β-cell differentiation methods, disease modelling, and future perspectives. [...] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkAr...
Source: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Mini-Review Source Type: research

Related Links:

Authors: Umnyakova ES, Zharkova MS, Berlov MN, Shamova OV, Kokryakov VN Abstract Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were firstly discovered as cytotoxic substances that killed bacteria. Later they were described as biologically active peptides that are able not only to kill invaders but also to modulate host immunity. In particular, it is shown that human antimicrobial peptides are able to influence the activity of different innate and adaptive immunity components, thus, obviously, they also participate in autoimmune processes. In this review we discuss the nature of human AMPs and analyze their role in such autoimmune ...
Source: Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research
1% of all live born children are born with a congenital heart defect (CHD) and currently 95% reach adulthood. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that can develop due to i.e. heredity, exposure to infections and stress-strain. The incidence of T1DM in patients with CHD is unknown and we analysed the risk of developing T1DM for patients with CHD, and how this influences mortality.
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
Immunotherapy has transformed the treatment landscape for a wide range of human cancers. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), monoclonal antibodies that block the immune-regulatory “checkpoint” receptors CTLA-4, PD-1, or its ligand PD-L1, can produce durable responses in some patients. However, coupled with their success, these treatments commonly evoke a wide range of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that can affect any organ system and can be treatment-limiting and life-threatening, such as diabetic ketoacidosis, which appears to be more frequent than initially described. The majority of irAEs from check...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that targets the destruction of islet beta-cells resulting in insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia and death if untreated. Despite advances in medical devices and longer-acting insulin, there is still no robust therapy to substitute and protect beta-cells that are lost in T1DM. Attempts to refrain from the autoimmune attack have failed to achieve glycemic control in patients highlighting the necessity for a paradigm shift in T1DM treatment. Paradoxically, beta-cells are present in T1DM patients indicating a disturbed equilibrium between the immune attack and beta-cell r...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsBased on a large, unselected patient cohort we find that epilepsy patients more often are prescribed medications used to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, myasthenia gravis and MS. This was true for both men and women, and in most age-groups.
Source: Seizure - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusion: Patients with type 1 DM should be examined for thyroid diseases, and patients with suspected thyroid disease should be evaluated with a thyroid ultrasound. Type 1 DM and PTC coexistence albeit very rare; It should be known that type 1 diabetes can be seen together with thyroid cancer. PMID: 31686641 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Diabetes Reviews - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Curr Diabetes Rev Source Type: research
Conclusion: Pancreatic atrophy may be more common among children with DM, suggesting more advanced exocrine disease. However, data in this exploratory cohort also suggest increased autoimmunity and hypertriglyceridemia in children with DM, suggesting that risk factors for type 1 and type 2 DM, respectively may play a role in mediating DM development in children with pancreatitis.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Article: Pancreatology Source Type: research
Authors: Manoylov IK, Boneva GV, Doytchinova IA, Mihaylova NM, Tchorbanov AI Abstract Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune syndrome defined by the presence of autoreactive T and B cells, which results in destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. Autoantibodies against GAD65 (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65)-a membrane-bound enzyme on pancreatic beta cells, contribute to beta cells' destruction and the loss of pancreatic functions. Mouse FcγRIIb on B lymphocytes possesses an inhibitory effect on the activity of these cells. We hypothesized that it may be possible to suppress GAD65-specific B cells in mi...
Source: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy - Category: Microbiology Tags: Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother Source Type: research
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. Its two most common forms are type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), for which genetic and environmental risk factors act in synergy. Because it occurs in children and involves infectious, autoimmune or toxic destruction of the insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells, type 1 diabetes has been called juvenile or insulin-deficient diabetes. In type 2, patients can still secrete some insulin but its effectiveness may be attenuated by ‘insulin resistance.’ There is also a group of rare forms of diabetes...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
More News: Autoimmune Disease | Diabetes | Diabetes Mellitus | Diabetes Type 1 | Endocrinology | Genetics | Hormones | Insulin | Pancreas | Physiology | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cells | Transplants