Management of bronchiectasis in adults.

Management of bronchiectasis in adults. Med J Aust. 2018 Aug 20;209(4):177-183 Authors: Visser SK, Bye P, Morgan L Abstract Once neglected in research and underappreciated in practice, there is renewed interest in bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis. Bronchiectasis is a chronic lung disease characterised by chronic cough, sputum production and recurrent pulmonary exacerbations. It is diagnosed radiologically on high resolution computed tomography chest scan by bronchial dilatation (wider than the accompanying artery). The causes of bronchiectasis are diverse and include previous respiratory tract infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, immunodeficiency and connective tissue diseases. A large proportion of cases are idiopathic, reflecting our incomplete understanding of disease pathogenesis. Progress in the evidence base is reflected in the 2017 European management guidelines and the 2015 update to the Australian guidelines. Effective airway clearance remains the cornerstone of bronchiectasis management. This should be personalised and reviewed regularly by a respiratory physiotherapist. There is now robust evidence for the long term use of oral macrolide antibiotics in selected patients to reduce exacerbation frequency. The routine use of long term inhaled corticosteroids and/or long-acting bronchodilators should be avoided, unless concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma exists. The evidence for nebulised ag...
Source: Med J Aust - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Med J Aust Source Type: research

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We present a landscape-level analysis of mosquito abundance measured by daily counts of Ae. albopictus from 338 trap sites in 12 counties during May-September 2017. During the study period, the mean number of Ae. albopictus caught per day of trapping across all sites was 3.21. We constructed four sets of negative binomial generalized linear models to evaluate how trapping methodology, land cover, as well as temperature and precipitation at multiple time intervals influenced Ae. albopictus abundance. Biogents-Sentinel (BGS) traps were 2.78 times as efficient as gravid traps and 1.49 times as efficient as CO2-baited CDC ligh...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Daan Christiaens, Jelle Veraart, Lucilio Cordero-Grande, Anthony N. Price, Jana Hutter, Joseph V. Hajnal, J-Donald TournierAbstractProbing microstructure with diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) on a scale orders of magnitude below the imaging resolution relies on biophysical modelling of the signal response in the tissue. The vast majority of these biophysical models of diffusion in white matter assume that the measured dMRI signal is the sum of the signals emanating from each of the constituent compartments, each of which exhibits a d...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
This study aims, first, to validate a retrospectively-gated implementation of the DENSE method for assessing brain tissue pulsations as a physiological marker, and second, to use the acquired measurements to explore intracranial volume dynamics. We acquired repeated measurements of cerebral volumetric strain in 8 healthy subjects, and internally validated these measurements by comparing them to spinal CSF stroke volumes obtained in the same scan session.Peak volumetric strain was found to be highly repeatable between scan sessions. First/second measured peak volumetric strains were: (6.4 ± 1.7)x10−4/(6.7...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2019Source: Journal of Clinical NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Shoko Hara, Yoji Tanaka, Yasuhiro Ueda, Daisu Abe, Shihori Hayashi, Motoki Inaji, Taketoshi Maehara, Kenji Ishii, Tadashi NariaiAbstractIt is unclear whether the visual assessment of noninvasive arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging (ASL) can identify instances of hemodynamic compromise including an elevated oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) measured by 15O-gas positron emission tomography (PET). Here we evaluated the relationship between a four-point visual assessment system referred to as 'ASL scores' using AS...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2019Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty AcidsAuthor(s): Christopher E. Ramsden, Maria Makrides, Zhi-Xin Yuan, Mark S. Horowitz, Daisy Zamora, Lisa N Yelland, Karen Best, Jennifer Jensen, Ameer Y. Taha, Robert A. GibsonAbstractOxidized lipids derived from omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, collectively known as oxylipins, are bioactive signaling molecules that play diverse roles in human health and disease. Supplementation with n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during pregnancy has been reported to decrease the risk of preterm birth i...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (PLEFA) - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Absolok® clips are a valid alternative to Hem-o-Lok® clips to secure blood vessels at the level of tumor bed and to perform a sliding-clip renorrhaphy in patients who underwent open or robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. PMID: 31833724 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Minerva Urol Nefrol Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2020Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 109, Issue 1Author(s): Simone Furia, Nazarena Nannini, Anna Pascarella, Cristiano BredaRosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare benign disorder of the histiocytes, affecting lymph nodes in its classic form. Extranodal RDD is considered the uncommon subtype and potentially impairs all tissues and intrathoracic organs. In our report, a 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan of a mediastinal mass infiltrating the lungs and of widespread lesions suggested the presence of a metastatic disease. Open thoracic biopsy was required for immuno...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
This report describes a case in which both these anomalies coexisted in an infant who underwent a successful Ross-Konno operation.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionsOccult nodal disease was frequently identified in peripheral N1 stations (11-13) in patients with small (≤2 cm) clinical N0 NSCLC. Hilar lymphadenectomy is essential for accurate staging in the management of patients with small clinical N0 NSCLC.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe established a novel formula to mathematically calculate actual 3D angles between inflow cannula and device body of HeartMate II. The formula would help investigators to validate their findings of the relationship between 2D projected angle (from CXR) and device thrombosis.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
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