Brain Evolution May Play Role in Mental Illnesses

Illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may be the result of changes in the human brain that took place during evolution, new research suggests.
Source: WebMD Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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Authors: DiSciullo AA, English CD, Horn WT Abstract Modafinil has been used as an adjunctive medication in the treatment of bipolar 1 depression with reported success. Case reports have been published demonstrating modafinil induced mania in bipolar patients and modafinil induced psychosis in schizophrenic patients. To our knowledge, we report the only case of modafinil induced psychosis in a patient with bipolar depression treated with both mood stabilizers and antipsychotics. In addition, it is the quickest onset to psychosis (2 days) at the lowest dosage of modafinil (100 mg/day) reported in the literature. Alth...
Source: Case Reports in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Case Rep Psychiatry Source Type: research
 Most people with mental illness are diagnosed between the ages of 16 and 24. This means that many people managing severe and persistent mental illness – like major depression, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia – have never faced serious physical illnesses before. So what happens when someone with a long history of mental illness reports symptoms of a physical illness, especially if that illness is hard to diagnose, treat, or see? Is it possible that the symptoms we believe we are having are just symptoms of mental illness – or could it be something more? Moreover, how do doctors react when someone ...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: A Bipolar, A Schizophrenic, and a Podcast Brain and Behavior Mental Health and Wellness Schizophrenia Source Type: blogs
Childhood critical periods of experience-dependent plasticity are essential for the development of environmentally appropriate behavior and cognition. Disruption of critical periods can alter development of normal function and confer risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. While genes and their expression relevant to neurodevelopment are associated with schizophrenia, the molecular relationship between schizophrenia and critical periods has not been assessed systematically. Here, we apply a transcriptome-based bioinformatics approach to assess whether genes associated with the human critical period for visual cortex plastic...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2018Source: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological PsychiatryAuthor(s): G. Fond, L. Boyer, M. Boucekine, V. Girard, S. Loubière, C. Lenoir, P. Auquier, A. Tinland, French Housing First Study GroupAbstractObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with violent behavior in a large multicenter sample of Homeless Schizophrenia (SZ) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) (HSB) subjects.MethodsThis multicenter study was conducted in 4 French cities: Lille, Marseille, Paris and Toulouse. Violent behavior was defined by at least one episode of verb...
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V) defines a mental disorder as a syndrome with clinically significant disturbance in cognition, emotional regulation or behavior that can range from mild, moderate to severe impairment in underlying mental functioning [1]. Major psychiatric disorders include depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ADHD and autism. In the United States, 1 in 5 adults (43.8 million) experiences mental illness in any given year and 1 in 25 adults experience a serious mental illness that impairs or limits daily activities [2].
Source: Burns : Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
Much of what we think we know about cannabis may soon change as a result of new research that uncovers some surprising facts. Indeed, the topic, which can be emotionally charged, is the focus of intense scientific study. Is cannabis good for you? Is it addictive? What long-term harms can use cause? The answers to these questions are multi-layered and not always clear-cut, which is why cannabis research continues with even more urgency. FACTS ON CANNABIS ADDICTION AND DEPENDENCE Current estimates are that one in 10 cannabis users will develop cannabis addiction or dependence. The potency of the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ...
Source: Psych Central - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Addictions Habits Healthy Living Memory and Perception Miscellaneous Drugs Neuroscience Substance Abuse Source Type: news
Authors: Khan MM Abstract Accumulating data from various clinical trial studies suggests that adjuvant therapy with ovarian hormones (estrogens) could be effective in reducing cognitive deficit and psychopathological symptoms in women with psychiatric disorders. However, estrogen therapy poses serious limitations and health issues including feminization in men and increased risks of thromboembolism, hot flashes, breast hyperplasia, and endometrium hyperplasia when used for longer duration in older women (aged ≥ 60 years) or in women who have genetic predispositions. On the other hand, selective est...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research
  Emotional overeating is an extremely common problem for many people, particularly among those who live with depression. Many of us have a tendency to “eat our feelings,” resorting to food to make us feel better and as an escape from the things that bother us. As one would expect, this kind of behavior leads to weight gain, which only adds to the negative feelings that we’re trying to escape from. In this episode, we’ll learn about emotional overeating, including what it is and isn’t, its relation to hunger, and how to deal with the ever-present food during holidays, work functions, a...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Binge Eating Eating Disorders General The Psych Central Show Emotional Overeating Gabe Howard Vincent M. Wales Source Type: blogs
This study investigated how aripiprazole, escitalopram and their combination affect the net effect of 5-HT and NE neurotransmission in the rat hippocampus. Electrophysiological recordings of hippocampus CA3 pyramidal neurons were conducted in anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats after 2- and 14-day administration regimens. Aripiprazole and escitalopram (2 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively) were delivered alone or in combination through subcutaneous injections and implanted osmotic minipumps, respectively. Overall neurotransmission of 5-HT and NE were assessed by determining possible enhancements in tonic activation of 5-HT1A rece...
Source: Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research
CACNA1C encodes the Cav1.2 L-type voltage-gated calcium channel. Generic variation in CACNA1C has been consistently identified as associated with risk for psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and autism. Psychiatric risk loci are also enriched for genes involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that the expression ofCacna1c is regulated in the rat hippocampus after context exposure, contextual fear conditioning and fear memory retrieval in a manner that correlates to specific memory processes. Using quantitative in situ hybridisation, the expressi...
Source: Molecular Neuropsychiatry - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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