Sarcopenia

Publication date: Available online 8 August 2018Source: Joint Bone SpineAuthor(s): Anne Tournadre, Gaelle Vial, Frédéric Capel, Martin Soubrier, Yves BoirieABSTRACTSarcopenia is defined as a combination of low muscle mass with low muscle function. The term was first used to designate the loss of muscle mass and performance associated with aging. Now, recognized causes of sarcopenia also include chronic disease, a physically inactive lifestyle, loss of mobility, and malnutrition. Sarcopenia should be differentiated from cachexia, which is characterized not only by low muscle mass but also by weight loss and anorexia. Sarcopenia results from complex and interdependent pathophysiological mechanisms that include aging, physical inactivity, neuromuscular compromise, resistance to postprandial anabolism, insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, endocrine factors, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation. The prevalence of sarcopenia ranges from 3% to 24% depending on the diagnostic criteria used and increases with age. Among patients with rheumatoid arthritis 20% to 30% have sarcopenia, which correlates with disease severity. Sarcopenia exacts a heavy toll of functional impairment, metabolic disorders, morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Thus, the consequences of sarcopenia include disability, quality-of-life impairments, falls, osteoporosis, dyslipidemia, an increased cardiovascular risk, metabolic syndrome, and immunosuppression. The adverse ef...
Source: Joint Bone Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 10 December 2019Source: Small Ruminant ResearchAuthor(s): J. Reintke, K. Brügemann, H. Wagner, P. Engel, A. Wehrend, S. KönigAbstractThere is an increasing economic pressure in sheep production. Hence, it is imperative to use all available tools contributing to improvements in lamb survival. In this regard, there is a lack of studies addressing the impact of maternal body condition traits on lamb performances during lactation. Specifically, the focus of the present study was to analyse associations between ewe traits reflecting maternal energy metabolism and lamb body weight (LB...
Source: Small Ruminant Research - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Authors: Hill BG, Shiva S, Ballinger S, Zhang J, Darley-Usmar VM Abstract It is now becoming clear that human metabolism is extremely plastic and varies substantially between healthy individuals. Understanding the biochemistry that underlies this physiology will enable personalized clinical interventions related to metabolism. Mitochondrial quality control and the detailed mechanisms of mitochondrial energy generation are central to understanding susceptibility to pathologies associated with aging including cancer, cardiac and neurodegenerative diseases. A precision medicine approach is also needed to evaluate the ...
Source: Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Tags: Biol Chem Source Type: research
Authors: Aretz I, Jakubke C, Osman C Abstract Mitochondria supply virtually all eukaryotic cells with energy through ATP production by oxidative phosphoryplation (OXPHOS). Accordingly, maintenance of mitochondrial function is fundamentally important to sustain cellular health and various diseases have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Biogenesis of OXPHOS complexes crucially depends on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that encodes essential subunits of the respiratory chain and is distributed in multiple copies throughout the mitochondrial network. During cell division, mitochondria, including mtDNA, need to be ac...
Source: Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Tags: Biol Chem Source Type: research
Conclusions: A significant increase (P = .02) in Lyme arthritis cases was observed at Oishei Children's Hospital of Buffalo. Lyme arthritis may clinically present similarly to other forms of arthritis, such as oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, so health care providers should be aware of distinguishing clinical features, which include rapid onset of swelling and patient age. Because the geographic area of endemic Lyme disease is expanding, all health care providers need to be aware of Lyme arthritis as a possible diagnosis. PMID: 31819695 [PubMed]
Source: Clinical Medicine Insights: Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Clin Med Insights Arthritis Musculoskelet Disord Source Type: research
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. We are currently facing an “obesity epidemic” worldwide. Promoting inefficient metabolism in muscle represents a potential treatment for obesity and its complications. Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pumps in muscle are responsible for maintaining low cytosolic Ca2+ concentration through the ATP-depe ndent pumping of Ca2+ from the cytosol into the SR lumen. SERCA activity has the potential to be a critical regulator of body mass and adiposity given that it is estimated to contribute upwards of 20% of daily energy expenditure....
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - Category: Physiology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: February 2020Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 186Author(s): Kailash P. Prajapati, Akhilesh P. Singh, Kriti Dubey, Masihuzzaman Ansari, Mayur Temgire, Bibin G. Anand, Karunakar KarAbstractMyricetin has been identified as a naturally occurring flavonoid class of polyphenolic compound which shows multiple medical benefits including antidiabetic, anticancerous and antioxidant properties. Here, we report the protective effect of myricetin against in vitro amyloid fibril formation of selected globular proteins. The results reveal that myricetin is capable of inhibiting amyloid fibril forma...
Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
This study describes the nutritional status of Qom preschoolers in general, and by neighborhood area and family's socioeconomic characteristics in a peri-urban village of Formosa, Argentina. Across-sectional study was carried out between January and December 2016, with 160 Qom children between 2 and 5 years of age. Interviews and anthropometric measures were conducted at the children's homes. Nutritional status was determined by body mass index. The prevalence of excess weight (overweight + obesity) and of stunting were associated with neighborhood area and socioeconomic level. The overall prevalence of stunting was 15.6% ...
Source: Ecology of Food and Nutrition - Category: Nutrition Tags: Ecol Food Nutr Source Type: research
Authors: Singh AK, Singh R Abstract BACKGROUND: Lorcaserin is a novel, selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C serotonin receptor agonist, approved for the treatment of obesity. Several phase 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) trials have shown a significant reduction in body weight with lorcaserin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We systematically searched the database of PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov up to July 31, 2019 and retrieved all the studies conducted with lorcaserin for ≥ 1-year that have explicitly reported the efficacy and safety outcomes versus placebo. Subsequently, we s...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research
Authors: Umapathy S, Thulasi R, Gupta N, Sivanadhan S Abstract The aim and objectives of this study were as follows: (i) to perform automated segmentation of knee thermal image using the regional isotherm-based segmentation (RIBS) algorithm and segmentation of ultrasound image using the image J software; (ii) to implement the RIBS algorithm using computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) tools for classification of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and normal subjects based on feature extraction values; and (iii) to correlate the extracted thermal imaging features and colour Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) features in the knee re...
Source: Biomedizinische Technik/Biomedical Engineering - Category: Biomedical Engineering Tags: Biomed Tech (Berl) Source Type: research
Chairman of The Nippon Foundation Yohei Sasakawa and BRAC Executive Director Asif Saleh announcing $2 million partnership. Credit: Rafiqul Islam / IPSBy Rafiqul IslamDHAKA, Bangladesh, Dec 11 2019 (IPS) In the light of limited access to education for displaced Rohingya children, the Nippon Foundation has announced US$ 2 million support to BRAC to launch a project to ensure educational facilities to both Rohingya and local community children. The Nippon Foundation made the announcement at a press conference at the BRAC Centre in Dhaka, which was attended by Nippon Foundation chairman Yohei Sasakawa and BRAC Executive Direc...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Asia-Pacific Conferences Development & Aid Education Featured Headlines Health Human Rights Migration & Refugees Poverty & SDGs TerraViva United Nations National Leprosy Conference - Dhaka 2019 Source Type: news
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