Neuroimaging hippocampal subfields in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Journal of Psychiatric ResearchAuthor(s): Unn K. Haukvik, Christian K. Tamnes, Erik Söderman, Ingrid AgartzAbstractThe hippocampus is a complex structure consisting of subregions with specialized cytoarchitecture and functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in psychotic disorders show hippocampal subfield abnormalities, but affected regions differ between studies. We here present an overview of hippocampal anatomy and function relevant to psychosis, and the first systematic review and meta-analysis of MRI studies of hippocampal subfield morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Twenty-one MRI studies assessing hippocampal subfield volumes or shape in schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were included (n 15–887 subjects). Nine volumetric group comparison studies (total n = 2593) were included in random effects meta-analyses of group differences. The review showed mixed results, with volume reductions reported in most subfields in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Volumetric studies using ex-vivo based image analysis templates corresponded best with the shape studies, with CA1 as the most affected region. The meta-analyses showed volume reductions in all subfields in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder compared to healthy controls (all p 
Source: Journal of Psychiatric Research - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between schizophrenia liability and anxiety disorders is not restricted to psychopathology in adolescence but is present in adulthood and specifically linked to generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder. We suggest that the association between schizophrenia liability and hypomanic/manic episodes found in clinical samples may not be due to bias.Declarations of interestNone. PMID: 30472973 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry for Mental Science - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Br J Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2018Source: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological PsychiatryAuthor(s): G. Fond, L. Boyer, M. Boucekine, V. Girard, S. Loubière, C. Lenoir, P. Auquier, A. Tinland, French Housing First Study GroupAbstractObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with violent behavior in a large multicenter sample of Homeless Schizophrenia (SZ) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) (HSB) subjects.MethodsThis multicenter study was conducted in 4 French cities: Lille, Marseille, Paris and Toulouse. Violent behavior was defined by at least one episode of verb...
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Much of what we think we know about cannabis may soon change as a result of new research that uncovers some surprising facts. Indeed, the topic, which can be emotionally charged, is the focus of intense scientific study. Is cannabis good for you? Is it addictive? What long-term harms can use cause? The answers to these questions are multi-layered and not always clear-cut, which is why cannabis research continues with even more urgency. FACTS ON CANNABIS ADDICTION AND DEPENDENCE Current estimates are that one in 10 cannabis users will develop cannabis addiction or dependence. The potency of the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ...
Source: Psych Central - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Addictions Habits Healthy Living Memory and Perception Miscellaneous Drugs Neuroscience Substance Abuse Source Type: news
AbstractThe role of psychoactive substances in the treatment of mental disorders and the risk of suicide are major public health issues. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of antidepressants and antipsychotics detected in toxicological screenings in suicides. Cases from the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Charit é-University Medicine Berlin were reviewed over a 4-year-period. All cases (n = 477) with positive toxicology for antidepressants and antipsychotics in blood or organ tissue were included. Frequencies of the detected substances in non-suicide cases (n = 212; malen&n...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research
   When future NFL player Erik Coleman was eleven years old, he discovered that both of his parents were addicts (one to alcohol, one to harder drugs). This was a traumatic discovery, but made worse when, one day, he returned home from school to find his father had moved out. Erik shares this and more with us, including how this affected him as a child and as an adult, even through his years playing in the NFL. He shares his thoughts on what is most important for children of addicts to know, and of what happened to his parents later in life. Subscribe to Our Show! And Remember to Review Us! Show High...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Addiction Family General The Psych Central Show Erik Coleman Gabe Howard Vincent M. Wales Source Type: blogs
What is a Co-Occuring disorder? The coexistence of both a mental health disorder and a substance abuse use disorder is referred to as a co-occurring disorder. Any combination of mental health and addiction can be referred to as having a co-occuring disorder. The combinations can be seemingly endless, and can even include more than one of either a mental disorder or an addiction. Combinations may include depression and alcoholism, anorexia and cocaine addiction, bipolar disorder and heroin addiction and the list goes on. Surprisingly, as many as 6 in 10 substance abusers also have at least one other mental disorder. There i...
Source: Cliffside Malibu - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Addiction Addiction Recovery Addiction Treatment and Program Resources ADHD Alcohol Alcohol Rehab Information Alcoholism Anxiety Behavioral Addictions Depression Depression Treatment Drinking Drug Treatment Dual Diagnosis and Eat Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS: Given the unique character of each study design, the convergent findings for these eight psychiatric conditions suggest that heritability estimates are robust across different methods. The findings also highlight large differences in genetic and environmental influences between psychiatric disorders, providing future directions for etiological psychiatric research. PMID: 30221610 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research
Conclusion: SUD is highly prevalent among Canadian adolescents with BP and is associated with anxiety disorders, behavioural disorders, and trait impulsivity. Targeting these clinical characteristics may help guide preventative and treatment strategies for this population. PMID: 30038653 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry Source Type: research
ConclusionPhysical pain was highly reported in homeless patients with severe mental illness with insufficient care. Physical pain should be systematically explored and treated in this population. Bipolar disorders, antidepressant consumption and female gender may be targeted in priority. Age and psychotic symptomatology were found to influence self-reported pain in a marginal way.
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Suicide rates are high and have only been increasing over the years. Over 800,000 people die all over the world by suicide each year. A proportion of the suicides are murder suicides resulting in additional loss of life. Attempts at suicide occur more frequently and we have about one million suicide attempts occurring each year. Suicide is a heart-breaking problem that is growing and needs to be addressed in as many ways as is possible. Understanding the risk factors, knowing the warning signs and what to do about them, is a crucial step. The more the awareness the greater the impact on suicide prevention. Risk Factors f...
Source: Psych Central - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Depression General Suicide Source Type: news
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