Neuroimaging hippocampal subfields in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Journal of Psychiatric ResearchAuthor(s): Unn K. Haukvik, Christian K. Tamnes, Erik Söderman, Ingrid AgartzAbstractThe hippocampus is a complex structure consisting of subregions with specialized cytoarchitecture and functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in psychotic disorders show hippocampal subfield abnormalities, but affected regions differ between studies. We here present an overview of hippocampal anatomy and function relevant to psychosis, and the first systematic review and meta-analysis of MRI studies of hippocampal subfield morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Twenty-one MRI studies assessing hippocampal subfield volumes or shape in schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were included (n 15–887 subjects). Nine volumetric group comparison studies (total n = 2593) were included in random effects meta-analyses of group differences. The review showed mixed results, with volume reductions reported in most subfields in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Volumetric studies using ex-vivo based image analysis templates corresponded best with the shape studies, with CA1 as the most affected region. The meta-analyses showed volume reductions in all subfields in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder compared to healthy controls (all p 
Source: Journal of Psychiatric Research - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

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Computerized device uses (CDU; e.g., playing computer games (CompGaming), mobile phone use (minutes/week for the last three months (PhoneUse) and total usage years), hands-free/speakerphone device use). Epidemiological associations between CDUs and psychiatric disorders are frequently reported; the biological mechanisms underlying these observations remain unknown. We investigated genetic overlap and causality between CDUs and psychiatric disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia (SCZ), autism spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, alcohol dependence, bipolar disorder, anorexia nervos...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
Hui Xu1,2,3, Chenguang Guo1, Haining Li1, Lin Gao2, Ming Zhang1* and Yuan Wang1* 1Department of Medical Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China 2Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Education Ministry, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China 3Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Background and Purpose: Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a rare neuromuscular disorder characterized by unilateral, involuntary, and paroxysmal contractions of orofacial muscles. To eluci...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
OBJECTIVE: The use of synthetic cannabinoid (SC) products has become popular in recent years, but data regarding their impact on hospital stays are limited. The impact of SC and cannabis use on hospital length of stay and doses of antipsychotics at dischar...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news
Authors: Deng H, Desai PV, Mohite S, Okusaga OO, Zhang XY, Nielsen DA, Kosten TR Abstract OBJECTIVE: The use of synthetic cannabinoid (SC) products has become popular in recent years, but data regarding their impact on hospital stays are limited. The impact of SC and cannabis use on hospital length of stay and doses of antipsychotics at discharge was assessed in this study. METHOD: The sample consisted of inpatients with discharge diagnoses of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or other psychotic disorders. Medical records of patients with self-reported SC use and negative urine drug screens (SC group, n = 77), w...
Source: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs - Category: Addiction Tags: J Stud Alcohol Drugs Source Type: research
Conclusion: Fun seeking on the BAS and frustration intolerance should be considered as targets in prevention and intervention programs for IA among adolescents with ADHD.IntroductionThe negative effects of internet addiction (IA) have become a concern in the past decades. IA is characterized by persistent internet use despite negative consequences, loss of control, preoccupation with internet use, increasing amounts of time spent online, and withdrawal symptoms (1). Internet gaming disorders are listed in the “Conditions for Further Study” section in the Fifth Edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Men...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that cognitive dysfunction severity relates to the negative/disorganized symptom domain across SZ, BD, and MDD, and negative/disorganized symptoms may be an important target for effective cognitive remediation in SZ, BD, and MDD.IntroductionSchizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) have long been viewed as distinct disorders based on differing clinical presentations (1); however, there is substantial evidence suggesting that these disorders share pathophysiological and clinical manifestations (2, 3). Moreover, studies have shown co-aggregation of the th...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
This study presents findings from a large sample with extensive clinical phenotyping—allowing us to examine the relationships of insulin resistance with a number of key psychopathological, cognitive, and functioning measures, using multivariate methods to assess the relative contributions of different factors to metabolic abnormalities. PwS often have many risk factors for metabolic abnormalities: lifestyle habits, medications, and underlying biological mechanisms including inflammation and oxidative stress. Treatment and prevention of metabolic abnormalities in PwS can be particularly challenging due to these multip...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Vincent Negatsch1*, Alexander Voulgaris2, Peter Seidel3, Robert Roehle4,5,6 and Annette Opitz-Welke11Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Forensic Psychiatry, Berlin, Germany2Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Institute of Sexual Medicine and Forensic Psychiatry, Hamburg, Germany3Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Prison Hospital Berlin, Berlin, Germany4Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
 Even if we live with mental illness, ourselves, we can be frustrated when we don’t know how to help a friend or family member who’s dealing with it. We may find that coping skills that work for us may not work for someone else. Medications that work for us may not work for the other person. In this episode, Gabe and Michelle discuss how to help friends with mental illness, including the help available through caregivers, medication, and more.   SUBSCRIBE &REVIEW “And I wonder to myself, ‘Why do you tolerate this s**t?’” – Gabe Howard   Highlights From &lsq...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: A Bipolar, A Schizophrenic, and a Podcast Caregivers Depression Friends Source Type: blogs
Conclusion: Although a cause–effect relationship cannot be firmly stated, an association between early trauma experience and cognitive impairment such as visual memory, as well as a relationship between negative symptoms and attention domains, is suggested by our preliminary findings. Future studies with larger sample sizes and prospective design will clarify the long-term effects of early exposure to trauma and its clinical meaning in terms of developing psychotic-related illness.IntroductionMore than 75% of patients with schizophrenia show some level of cognitive impairment, leading to poor functional status and im...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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