Risk factors for colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in a low-endemicity setting for carbapenem resistance - a matched case-control study.

Conclusion: In a low-endemicity setting for carbapenem resistance, prior exposure to carbapenems was the only risk factor for colonisation or infection with colistin-resistant E. coli or K. pneumoniae. Prior exposure to colistin was not significantly associated with detection of colistin resistance, which mainly occurred in the absence of concurrent carbapenem resistance. PMID: 30064544 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

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Abstract SUMMARYSurveillance studies have shown that OXA-48-like carbapenemases are the most common carbapenemases in Enterobacterales in certain regions of the world and are being introduced on a regular basis into regions of nonendemicity, where they are responsible for nosocomial outbreaks. OXA-48, OXA-181, OXA-232, OXA-204, OXA-162, and OXA-244, in that order, are the most common enzymes identified among the OXA-48-like carbapenemase group. OXA-48 is associated with different Tn1999 variants on IncL plasmids and is endemic in North Africa and the Middle East. OXA-162 and OXA-244 are derivatives of OXA-48 and a...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis report confirms 12 azithromycin-resistantSalmonella Typhi strains and one Paratyphi A strain. The molecular basis of this resistance is one mutation in the AcrB protein at position 717. This is the first report demonstrating the impact of this non-synonymous mutation in conferring macrolide resistance in a clinical setting. With increasing azithromycin use, strains with R717 mutations may spread and be acquired by XDR strains. An azithromycin-resistant XDR strain would shift enteric fever treatment from outpatient departments, where patients are currently treated with oral azithromycin, to inpatient departm...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Planta Med DOI: 10.1055/a-1013-0434The development of multiple antibiotic–resistant bacteria has vastly depleted our repertoire of effective antibiotic chemotherapies. The development of multi-β-lactam-resistant strains are particularly concerning due to our previous reliance on this class of antibiotics because of their initial efficacy and broad-spectrum activity. With increases in extended-spectrum β-lactam-resistance and an expanded resistance to other classes of antibiotics, there is an urgent need for the development of effective new antibiotic therapies. Terminalia ferdinandiana is an endemic Austral...
Source: Planta Medica - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Original Papers Source Type: research
AbstractFoodborne viral diseases are a major public health threat and pose a huge burden on the economies of both developed and developing countries. Enteric viruses are the causative agents of most foodborne illnesses and outbreaks. Egypt is classified by WHO among the regions with intermediate to high endemicity for various enteric viruses. This is manifested by the high prevalence rates of different enteric virus infections among Egyptian population such as Hepatitis A and E viruses, human rotaviruses, human noroviruses, human astroviruses, and human adenovirus. Recently, a number of foodborne gastroenteritis and acute ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
by Rachael Lappan, Cajsa Classon, Shashi Kumar, Om Prakash Singh, Ricardo V. de Almeida, Jaya Chakravarty, Poonam Kumari, Sangeeta Kansal, Shyam Sundar, Jenefer M. Blackwell Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused byLeishmania donovani remains of public health concern in rural India. Those at risk of VL are also at risk of other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) including soil transmitted helminths. Intestinal helminths are potent regulators of host immune responses sometimes mediated through cross-talk with gut microbiota. We evaluate a meta-taxonomic approach to determine the composition of prokaryotic and eukaryotic gut mi...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
The self-transferring integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are large genomic segments carrying several bacterial adaptive functions including antimicrobial resistance (AMR). SXT/R391 family is one of the ICEs extensively studied in cholera-causing pathogen Vibrio cholerae. The genetic characteristics of ICE-SXT/R391 in V. cholerae are dynamic and region-specific. These ICEs in V. cholerae are strongly correlated with resistance to several antibiotics such as tetracycline, streptomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. We screened V. cholerae O1 strains isolated from cholera patients in Kolkata, India during 2008-20...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, using a simple, fast, and inexpensive detection method, such as LAMP, especially in endemic regions or in an outbreak to control spreading of pathogens, is very important for public health.
Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions TheK. pneumoniae ST11 NDM-1 outbreak has dramatically expanded in Poland since 2012, which may bring about a countrywide endemic situation in the near future. In addition, the so-far limitedK. pneumoniae ST147 NDM-1 outbreak plus multiple NDM imports from different countries were observed in 2015 –16.
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
ly FM Abstract Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea worldwide. A capsular polysaccharide (CPS) conjugate vaccine is under development and requires determination of the valency. However, distribution of CPS types circulating globally is presently poorly described. We aimed to determine whether CPS type distribution in Peru differs from that in other endemic regions. We used a multiplex PCR assay for the detection of CPS encoding genes capable of distinguishing all 35 CPS types on Campylobacter isolates in two prospective communities based studies conducted in cohorts of children less than...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Abstract Unawareness of canine parasitic diseases among at-risk hosts and an uncontrolled program of stray dog population have caused that zoonotic parasites received great attention in endemic regions of the Middle East. A total of 552 faecal samples were collected between December 2016 to January 2018 from stray (n = 408) and domestic (n = 144) dogs of Iran. All specimens were coproscopically observed following concentration and flotation techniques. Subsequently, the DNAs of taeniid eggs were extracted, amplified, and sequenced by targeting of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research
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