How to best assess abdominal obesity

Purpose of review Abdominal obesity, especially the increase of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is closely associated with increased mortality related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. This review provides an overview of the recent advances for abdominal obesity measurement. Recent findings Compared to simple waist circumference, emerging three-dimensional (3D) body-scanning techniques also measure abdominal volume and shape. Abdominal dimension measures have been implemented in bioelectrical impedance analysis to improve accuracy when estimating VAT. Geometrical models have been applied in ultrasound to convert depth measurement into VAT area. Only computed tomography (CT) and MRI can provide direct measures of VAT. Recent advances in imaging allow for evaluating functional aspects of abdominal fat such as brown adipose tissue and fatty acid composition. Summary Waist circumference is a simple, inexpensive method to measure abdominal obesity. CT and MRI are reference methods for measuring VAT. Further studies are needed to establish the accuracy for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in estimating longitudinal changes of VAT. Further studies are needed to establish whether bioelectrical impedance analysis, ultrasound, or 3D body scanning is consistently superior to waist circumference in estimating VAT in different populations.
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - Category: Nutrition Tags: ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL AND METABOLIC STATUS: Edited by Dwight E. Matthews and Kristina Norman Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Although the mechanisms of obesity-induced inflammation and its association with NAFLD and liver fibrosis are incompletely understood, our findings indicate an extensive and complex tissue network that needs to be further investigated. PMID: 30511955 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions - Category: Neurology Tags: J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact Source Type: research
(NIH/National Human Genome Research Institute) NHGRI researchers have discovered a hormone in a mouse study that can be used immediately to can help doctors predict how severely patients with the rare disease methylmalonic acidemia are affected and when to refer them for liver transplants. The findings, published December 6 in JCI Insight, also might shed light on more common disorders such as fatty liver disease, obesity and diabetes.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: news
An increasing number of studies have shown that obesity is the key etiological agent of cardiovascular diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes and several kinds of cancer and that gut micro...
Source: Lipids in Health and Disease - Category: Lipidology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Twelve-week pegbelfermin treatment did not impact HbA1c concentrations, but QW and higher daily doses were associated with improved metabolic parameters and fibrosis biomarkers in patients with obesity and T2DM predisposed to fatty liver. These results support evaluation of pegbelfermin in patients with obesity-related metabolic diseases (e.g., nonalcoholic steatohepatitis). PMID: 30520566 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Obesity (Silver Spring) Source Type: research
NHGRI researchers have discovered a hormone in a mouse study that can be used immediately to can help doctors predict how severely patients with the rare disease methylmalonic acidemia are affected and when to refer them for liver transplants. The findings, published December 6 in JCI Insight, also might shed light on more common disorders such as fatty liver disease, obesity and diabetes.
Source: NHGRI Homepage Highlights - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: news
Conclusions: NAFLD severity was associated with high IOP (>15 mm Hg) in Korean adults in a dose-dependent manner.
Source: Journal of Glaucoma - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
Authors: Jensen T, Wieland A, Cree-Green M, Nadeau K, Sullivan S Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is quickly emerging as a global epidemic in parallel with the rise in obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome. NAFLD, once seen simply as a passive consequence of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), has been found to interact with other features of MetS to exacerbate insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. NAFLD is also becoming the top indication for liver transplant and an important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment of this disorder is limited mainly to lifestyle modificatio...
Source: Postgraduate Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Postgrad Med Source Type: research
tincasa P Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition characterized by the excessive accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes. NAFLD is the most frequent chronic liver disease in developed countries, and is often associated with metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD definition encompasses a spectrum of chronic liver abnormalities, ranging from simple steatosis (NAFL), to steatohepatitis (NASH), significant liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD, therefore, represents a global public health issue. Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in NAFLD, an...
Source: Biochemical Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research
AbstractEnergy imbalance resulting from high calorie food intake and insufficient metabolic activity leads to increased body mass index (BMI) and sets the stage for metabolic derangement influencing lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and ultimately leading to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. 70% of cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths occur in patients with diabetes. Environment-induced physiological perturbations trigger epigenetic changes through chromatin modification and leads to type 2 diabetes and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and CVD. Thus, in terms of disease progressio...
Source: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Metabolism has published a lot of exceptional work within the ever-expanding field in the past year. Here, we present the most exceptional articles from both basic and clinical research, which were published in Metabolism in 2018. This overview highlights articles across metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)/ insulin resistance (IR), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and obesity, all of which have become major health problems for modern society. These manuscripts reveal novel mechanisms of these prevalent diseases and suggest novel targets for future therapeutics.
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
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