Nocebo Responses in Brain Diseases: A Systematic Review of the Current Literature

Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: International Review of NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Panagiotis Zis, Dimos-Dimitrios MitsikostasAbstractPlacebo is an intervention with no therapeutic effect that is used as a control in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Placebo effects and responses can produce a beneficial effect that cannot be attributed to the properties of the intervention itself, since it is usually inactive, and should, therefore, be due to the patient's expectations about treatment (placebo effects), or confounding factors such as natural history, co-interventions, biases, among other co-factors (placebo responses). However, adverse events (AEs) may occur when using a placebo intervention, a phenomenon that is called nocebo. Like placebo, the nocebo effect is a cognitive and idiosyncratic phenomenon with specific biological bases, controlled by distinctive neurotransmitters within mapped brain areas most likely located within the network of the limbic system.Nocebo responses has been found to be very prevalent in various neurological conditions, in particular, in many brain disorders including headache, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, depression, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and motor neuron disease. Pooled AE rates in the placebo groups (nocebo AE rates) vary from 25% in the symptomatic treatment for multiple sclerosis RCTs to almost 80% in motor neuron disease RCTs. Pooled dropout rates because of AEs in the placebo groups (i.e., nocebo ...
Source: International Review of Neurobiology - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Conclusions: Literature data concerning positive effects of umbilical cord milking are encouraging and suggest that umbilical cord milking may be a quick and effective method to provide placental transfusions to depressed infants. However, the lack of standardised procedures and the variation in evaluated outcomes as well as the limited number of patients enrolled in trials, along with the retrospective nature of some of them, prevent recommending umbilical cord milking as a routine procedure. PMID: 30886867 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Discussion: The observed constellation of dependencies between variables indicates that the choice of treatment scheme differentiates pain levels. This confirms the assumption that pain intensity, coping strategies, and ego resiliency depend on the severity of anxiety and depression. PMID: 30886858 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The SH staff was able to produce valid FAST-O assessments. There are reference data which makes it possible to characterize individual patients as well as SH units with respect to treatment needs and safety aspects (for instance risk of violence). PMID: 30888234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Nord J Psychiatry Source Type: research
(MedPage Today) -- Rising psychological distress, depression, and suicidal thoughts in this group may be partly due to digital media, study suggests
Source: MedPage Today Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: news
Mutations in the neurite extension and migration factor (NEXMIF) gene are associated with X-linked intellectual disability. Thus far, all males reported withNEXMIF mutations have mild to profound intellectual disability with varying combinations of autistic features, poor or absent speech, epilepsy, facial dysmorphism, and strabismus. Affected females tend to have milder intellectual disability but severe, drug-resistant epilepsy. Here, we present a 32-month-old boy with a novel de novo frameshiftNEXMIF pathogenic variant (p.Glu375ArgfsX21) who has mild motor delay, language delay, autistic features, and strabismus. In add...
Source: Molecular Syndromology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Volume 288Author(s): Bingbing Gao, Zhenzhu He, Bingfang He, Zhongze GuAbstractMultifunctional, comprehensive sensing and wear ability are desirable features for next-generation wearable sensors. Wearable sensors that simultaneously monitor human motion and biochemical indexes are increasingly exploited and are a rapidly evolving topic in point-of-care testing, personalized medicine and even artificial intelligence. However, fabricating highly integrated sensors with multiple functions remains challenging. Here, inspired by colorful peacock tail feather...
Source: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Treating patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) with cladribine tablets (two times 4 or 5 days of treatment each year for 2 years) results in long-lasting efficacy, with continued stability in many patients for 4 or more years. Safety and tolerability outcomes from individual clinical studies with cladribine tablets have been reported previously. OBJECTIVE: Report safety data from an integrated analysis of clinical trials and follow-up in patients with MS to further characterize the safety profile of cladribine tablets. METHODS: Data for patients treated with cladribine tabl...
Source: Herpes - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Mult Scler Relat Disord Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to examine the long-term impact of PCP training with standardized patients on screening and diagnosis of adolescent depression in primary ...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
BACKGROUND: Suicidal thoughts and non-suicidal self-harm are common in adolescents and are strongly associated with suicide attempts. We aimed to identify predictors of future suicide attempts in these high-risk groups. METHODS: Participants were f...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
BACKGROUND: The significance of the timing and chronicity of childhood adversity for depression outcomes later in life is unclear. Identifying trajectories of adversity throughout childhood would allow classification of children according to the accumulati...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
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