The Role of Epigenetic Modifications in Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Systematic Review

Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Lorenza Dall’Aglio, Taulant Muka, Charlotte A.M. Cecil, Wichor M. Bramer, Michael M.P.J. Verbiest, Jana Nano, Andrea Cortes Hidalgo, Oscar H. Franco, Henning TiemeierAbstractEpigenetic processes have been suggested as key mechanisms in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. This systematic review summarizes the current evidence for an association between epigenetics and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention/Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Six databases were searched until the 24th of October 2017. Of the 2169 retrieved articles, 29 met our inclusion criteria. While generally associations between epigenetics and neurodevelopmental disorders were reported, only a few findings were consistent across independent analyses. Differential epigenetic markers were repeatedly identified in OR2L13, C11orf21/TSPAN32, PRRT1 and H3K27 for autism, and in VIPR2 for ADHD. Overall, evidence of an association between epigenetic modifications and ASD or ADHD should be considered preliminary and based on studies suffering from numerous caveats. We highlight the need for carefully designed investigations and for greater homogeneity and provide specific recommendations for future research. Despite our current limited understanding, the suggestive findings and the rapid advances in the field hold the promise of a forthcoming elucidation of the role of epigenetic modifica...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Authors: Andrade C Abstract In observational studies, significant associations have often been identified between antidepressant drug prescription during pregnancy, on the one hand, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), on the other. Interpreting these associations is problematic because they are based on analyses that could not adjust for inadequately measured, unmeasured, and unknown confounds. Recent clinical data suggest that a genetic relationship exists between depression and neurodevelopmental disorders. A very recent study identified many genetic loci that w...
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Clin Psychiatry Source Type: research
Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that frequently co-occur. Both rare and common genetic variants are important for ASD and ADHD risk but their combined contribution to clinical heterogeneity is unclear. In a sample of 39 ASD and/or ADHD families we estimated the overall variance explained by known rare copy number variants (CNVs) and polygenic risk score (PRS) from common variants to be 10% in comorbid ASD/ADHD, 4% in ASD and 2% in ADHD. We show that burden of large, rare CNVs and PRS is significa...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research
Individuals with co-occurring hyperactivity disorder/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can have complex presentations that may complicate diagnosis and treatment. There are estab...
Source: BMC Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Guideline Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCannabis exposure during critical windows of development may have intergenerational physiological consequences disrupting epigenetic programming and marks. This review examines the literature relating to pre-gestational and prenatal cannabinoid exposure and its effect on genes and molecular pathways related to the development of psychiatric disease.Recent FindingsDevelopmental cannabis exposure alters epigenetic processes with functional gene consequences. These include potentially heritable alterations in genes and molecular pathways critical for brain development and associated with autism spectr...
Source: Current Environmental Health Reports - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: These results represent some of the most compelling evidence to date of the enduring power of early, time-limited childhood adversity to impair long-term neuropsychological functioning across the lifespan - effects that are linked specifically to deprivation-related adult ADHD symptoms. PMID: 32419675 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Reported associations between in utero exposure to antidepressants and physical, neurodevelopmental, and psychiatric outcomes, in large part, seem to be driven by the underlying maternal disorder. When limiting confounding by indication, prenatal exposure to antidepressants was significantly associated only with offspring BMI and affective disorders. PMID: 32412703 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Clin Psychiatry Source Type: research
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified the first genetic loci associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The next step is to use these results to increase our understanding of the biological mechanisms involved. Most of the identified variants likely influence gene regulation. The aim of the current study is to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the genetic signals and prioritize genes by integrating GWAS results with gene expression and DNA methylation (DNAm) levels.
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research
Authors: Cormier E, Park H, Schluck G Abstract The purpose of the study was to assess the eMental health literacy of parents of preschool children and explore the relationships between their eMental health literacy skills and their knowledge of common child mental health disorders and their child difficulties. Online survey data were collected using Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Parents of preschool children completed questionnaires related to internet-based mental health information seeking behavior, knowledge of common child mental health disorders using case vignettes, and child difficulties. Data were analyzed using...
Source: Issues in Mental Health Nursing - Category: Nursing Tags: Issues Ment Health Nurs Source Type: research
Among individuals born very preterm, perinatal inflammation, particularly if sustained or recurring, is highly likely a contributor to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, including cerebral white matter damage, cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. Antecedents and correlates of perinatal inflammation include socioeconomic disadvantage, maternal obesity, maternal infections, fetal growth restriction, neonatal sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and prolonged mechanical ventilation.
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Source Type: research
Your child may have setbacks during the school shutdown. But remember, schools will open again at some point and help get things back on track.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Children and Childhood Special Education Shutdowns (Institutional) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Parenting Quarantines Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Autism Intellectual Disabilities Source Type: news
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