Enteric Fever and Related Contextual Factors in Bangladesh.

This study describes enteric fever trends in Bangladesh along with these factors' progress between 1990 and 2014. Retrospective enteric fever data were collected from Dhaka Shishu (children) Hospital (DSH), Shishu Shasthya Foundation Hospital (SSFH), International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and Popular Diagnostic Center (PDC). Contextual factors data were gathered from relevant organizations and their websites and plotted against time to see trends. During 2001-2014, data for a total of 131,449 blood cultures were available at DSH, SSFH, and PDC. Of those, 7,100 (isolation rate 5.4%) yielded either Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi growth without visible change in isolation rate trends. Contextual factors data were reported from 1990 to 2014. There were significant developments for sanitation facilities, drinking water supply, female literacy, and reduction in poverty head count ratio. During this time period, population density also increased significantly. Despite improvements in these contextual factors in Bangladesh, the enteric fever trend seems steady, possibly because of high population density and unplanned development of water supply and sewerage system. Although proper development of these two factors is important, immunization with an effective vaccine is instrumental to prevent this disease immediately in endemic countries such as Bangladesh, specifically to overcome the challenge of emerging resista...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Related Links:

This article updates our laboratory's systematic search for antigens using bioinformatics tools to clarify the Mtb H37Rv Rv3632 protein's topology and location. This article reports a C-terminal region consisting of peptides 39255 and 39256 (81Thr-Arg114) having high specific binding regarding two infection-related cell lines (A549 and U937); they inhibited mycobacterial entry to U937 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Rv3632 forms part of the mycobacterial cell envelope, formed by six linear synthetic peptides. Circular dichroism enabled determining the protein's secondary structure. It was also found that peptide...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
[Nation] Kenya is on course in the immunisation of 800,000 girls against cervical cancer, Health Cabinet Secretary Sicily Kariuki has said, and allayed fears about the safety of the vaccine.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
(University of Maryland) In the first study of public health-related Facebook advertising, newly published in the journal Vaccine, researchers at the University of Maryland, the George Washington University and Johns Hopkins University show that a small group of anti-vaccine ad buyers has successfully leveraged Facebook to reach targeted audiences and that the social media platform's efforts to improve transparency have actually led to the removal of ads promoting vaccination and communicating scientific findings.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
ConclusionsResistant MTB isolates in Algeria harbour resistance genotypes similar to other countries, but some rare patterns may result from selection and transmission processes inherent to the country.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionFrom these observations, it appears that AMR inS. Typhi will continue to emerge leading to treatment failure, changes in antimicrobial policy and further resistance developing inS. Typhi isolates and other Gram-negative bacteria in endemic regions. The deployment of typhoid conjugate vaccines to control the disease in endemic regions may be the best defence.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
We report a total of 17,387 S. Typhi-positive and 8,286 S. Paratyphi A and B-positive specimens from 798,137 blood cultures performed. The results suggest an overall decline in typhoid incidence as S. Typhi positivity rates declined from 6.42% in 1992 to 1.32% in 2015 and S. Paratyphi (A and B) from 1.29% to 0.39%. Subgroup analysis suggests higher S. Typhi prevalence in adults older than 18 years, whereas S. Paratyphi is greater in aged children 5-18 years. The relative contribution of S. Paratyphi to overall confirmed cases increased from 16.8% in 1992 to 23% in 2015. The analysis suggests high burden of fluoroquinolone ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Abstract ObjectivesTyphoid fever is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in typhoid endemic countries like Bangladesh. However, data on the clinical and microbiological profile as well as factors associated with complications of typhoid in Bangladesh are scarce. We intended to characterize the clinical and microbiological profile of culture‐proven typhoid fever and to identify factors associated with complications. MethodologyRetrospective analysis of clinical data from 431 patients with culture‐confirmed typhoid fever admitted to Dhaka hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Ban...
Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Abstract Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), remains an unresolved public health problem in India. Emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains poses a great concern for typhoid treatment and influences reshaping of current S. Typhi population. We included representative S. Typhi strains (n=164) from retrospective studies, both community and hospital based, conducted at National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata during 15 years period (1998-2012) to analyze their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, mechanism of AMR and molecular subtypes of the strains. More...
Source: International Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Int J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Abstract Multidrug-resistant Salmonella is a well-recognised problem worldwide, especially in developing countries such as India, where non-typhoidal Salmonella infections and enteric fever are endemic. Antimicrobial resistance, particularly to fluoroquinolones, is common and leads to the frequent use of alternative agents, such as azithromycin. We herein describe the first reported case of azithromycin-resistant Salmonella gastroenteritis in a Singaporean patient. PMID: 26311915 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Singapore Medical Journal - Category: Journals (General) Authors: Tags: Singapore Med J Source Type: research
Conclusions: Fluoroquinolone resistant S. Typhi constitute a serious public health concern in endemic areas as well as in industrialized countries. Increased surveillance of global patterns of antimicrobial resistance is necessary and the control of resistant strains is of the utmost importance to maintain treatment options.
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
More News: Antimicrobial Resistance | Bangladesh Health | Child Development | Children | Endemics | Hospitals | International Medicine & Public Health | Salmonella | Study | Tropical Medicine | Typhoid | Typhoid Vaccine | Vaccines | Websites