Modality-specific effects of aversive expectancy in the anterior insula and medial prefrontal cortex

We presented participants with visual cues predicting either a painful heat or disgusting odor, and assessed how they affected the subsequent subjective experience of stimuli from the same (within-modality) or opposite (cross-modal) modality. We found a reliable influence of expectancy on the subjective experience of stimuli whose modality matched that of the previous cue. At the brain level, this effect was mediated by the intermediate dysgranular section of the insula, whereas it was suppressed by more anterior agranular portions of the same region. Instead, no expectancy modulation was observed when the modality of the cue differed from that of the subsequent stimulus. Our data suggest that the insular cortex encodes prospective aversive events in terms of their modality-specific features, and whether they match with subsequent stimulations.
Source: Pain - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

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Migraine headache is an episodic phenomenon, and patients with episodic migraine have ictal (headache), peri-ictal (premonitory, aura, and postdrome), and interictal (asymptomatic) phases. We aimed to find the functional characteristics of the migraine brain regardless of headache phase using dynamic functional connectivity analysis. We prospectively recruited 50 patients with migraine and 50 age- and sex-matched controls. All subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Significant networks were defined in a data-driven fashion from the interictal (>48 hours apart from headache phases) pati...
Source: Pain - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Brain functional network properties are globally disrupted in multiple musculoskeletal chronic pain conditions. Back pain with lumbar disk herniation (LDH) is highly prevalent and a major route for progression to chronic back pain. However, brain functional network properties remain unknown in such patients. Here, we examined resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging-based functional connectivity networks in chronic back pain patients with clear evidence for LDH (LDH-chronic pain n = 146), in comparison to healthy controls (HCs, n = 165). The study was conducted in China, thus providing the opportunity to also ex...
Source: Pain - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
We report a rare case of overlap syndrome (SSc and polymyositis) who presented with sudden chest pain secondary to myocardial fibrosis. Although the etiology of chest symptoms in collagen disease was difficult to identify, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed not myocarditis but myocardial fibrosis in our case. Synthetic judgement of serum brain natriuretic peptide/ troponin T levels and cardiac MRI is useful in the search for the cause of chest symptoms even in patients with collagen diseases. PMID: 31723102 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research
Conclusions: The novel CI magnet is safe to use for MRI investigations of CI users in 3T MRI without a need for bandaging and has acceptable level of image artefacts.
Source: Otology and Neurotology - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: COCHLEAR IMPLANTS Source Type: research
ConclusionMesenteric cysts represent a rare cause of intra-abdominal mass. Owing to low prevalence, literature is limited as is guidance on management. Careful pre-operative planning is essential so as to avoid operative complications. Imaging such as USS is of great importance; however Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) may be of more benefit, owing to the complex anatomical relations within which mesenteric cysts can present. Surgical excision is widely reported as the surgical treatment of choice for symptomatic cysts
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Discussion The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) “is an intra-articular but extrasynovial collagenous structure with limited healing capacity that originates in the posteromedial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle and crosses into anteromedially to insert anterior into the intercondylar eminence of tibial articular surface.” It plays an important part as a mechanoreceptor particularly as a proprioceptor. Its main role is to prevent excessive anterior tibial translation, limits varus/valgus stress when the knee is in full extension and some rotary movements of the knee. There are ~120,000 surgeries per year m...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
ConclusionsThe decreases in intra-network connectivity within the VIN and FRN and reduced local brain activity in the posterior parietal area suggest that patients with CADASIL may exhibit dysfunctional visuomotor behaviors (a hallmark of executive function), and that all visual information processing, visuomotor planning, and movement execution may be affected.
Source: The Journal of Headache and Pain - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe present study suggested that patients with MwoA have disruption in their RN and SN resting-state networks, which are associated with specific clinical characteristics. The changes focus on the regions associated with cognitive evaluation, multisensory integration, and modulation of perception and pain, which may be associated with migraine production, feedback, and development. Taken together, these results may improve our understanding of the neuropathological mechanism of migraine.
Source: The Journal of Headache and Pain - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Pregnant women with abdominal pain can pose a diagnostic dilemma due to the nonspecific nature of symptoms and the desire to avoid radiation to the conceptus. Many algorithms will suggest ultrasound (US) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as the first-line imaging choice in pregnant women with abdominal pain due to the lack of ionizing radiation. However, these studies can have limitations as well. Abdominopelvic MRI is susceptible to respiratory motion that could cause a study to be nondiagnostic (Zaitsev et al., 2015 [1]).
Source: Clinical Imaging - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Body Imaging Source Type: research
Genicular nerve block and subsequent radiofrequency neurotomy (RFN) has emerged as a novel intervention and alternative for total knee arthroplasty in patients with refractory pain from knee osteoarthritis (OA). To our knowledge, there is no cited report correlating the accuracy of localizing the genicular nerves using bony landmarks on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Source: Clinical Imaging - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Musculoskeletal and Emergency Imaging Source Type: research
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