ASCO 2018: highlights of urothelial cancer and prostate cancer

SummaryProstate cancer and urothelial carcinoma are the two most common urological cancers. The aim of this short review is to highlight abstracts from this year ’s ASCO Annual Meeting. The phase III SPCG-13 trial showed no difference in biochemical disease-free survival by the addition of docetaxel after primary radiation therapy of localized high-risk prostate cancer. In bone dominant metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer, the phase II radium -223 dose escalation study concluded that the currently used dose with 6 cycles of 55 kBq/kg remains the standard of care. The PARP inhibitor olaparib plus abiraterone provided a significant benefit in radiological progression-free survival compared with abiraterone alone, independent of homolog ous recombination repair (HRR) mutation status. In localized muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma, two phase II trials (ABACUS and PURE-01) exploring the pathological complete remission rate of atezolizumab and pembrolizumab prior to cystectomy in cisplatin-unfit or cisplatin-fit patients are prese nted. Novel targeted therapies such as fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies against nectin-4 confirmed astonishing objective response rates in heavily pretreated metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) patients, resulting in a median overall survival (OS) up to 13.8 months. Finally, updated 1‑year and 2‑year OS survival rates of pembrolizumab and atezolizum...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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This study suggests that increased expression of t he estrogen receptor β variants, β2 and β5, could be involved in development of a cancer’s stem cell characteristics and chemotherapy resistance, indicating that targeting these factors could prevent or reverse chemotherapy resistance and cancer stem cell expansion.
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
From time to time I have commented on the controversies over cancer screening. Most people assume that screening is an unqualified good, that early detection of cancer saves lives. Whenever some panel proposes recommending less screening, we hear screaming and yelling from advocates who claim they are trying to " ration " health care to save money at the expense of people's lives.In fact,as a bunch of Australians and a Minnesotan explain in BMJ, there are a few conditions called " cancer " that you are better off not treating, or perhaps treating very conservatively. These include what is called ductal ...
Source: Stayin' Alive - Category: American Health Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2018Source: Urology Case ReportsAuthor(s): Félix Couture, Joshua Chin, Jaron Chong, Simon Tanguay
Source: Urology Case Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
We report that the disruption of excitation-contraction coupling contributes to impaired force generation in the mouse model of Sod1 deficiency. Briefly, we found a significant reduction in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) activity as well as reduced expression of proteins involved in calcium release and force generation. Another potential factor involved in EC uncoupling in Sod1-/- mice is oxidative damage to proteins involved in the contractile response. In summary, this study provides strong support for the coupling between increased oxidative stress and disruption of cellular excitation contraction mac...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Prostate cancer management has traditionally relied upon risk stratification of patients based on Gleason score, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen and clinical tumor stage. However, these factors alone do not adequately reflect the inherent complexity and heterogeneity of prostate cancer. Accurate and individualized risk stratification at the time of diagnosis is instrumental to facilitate clinical decision-making and treatment selection tailored to each patient. The incorporation of tissue and genetic biomarkers into current prostate cancer prediction models may optimize decision-making and improve patient outcomes. ...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research
AbstractAndrogen receptor (AR) is a member of the steroid and nuclear family receptor that acts as transcription factor. AR signaling plays pivotal role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. However, the role of AR in penile cancer (PeCa) is poorly explored. Our previous molecular studies unveiled frequentAR mRNA loss in PeCa, which was further predicted as a major driver alteration in this neoplasm. Herein, we assessed the AR protein expression in 59 usual PeCa tissues and 42 surrounding normal tissues (SNT) by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray. In a paired analysis, we found a total absence ...
Source: Virchows Archiv - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 August 2018Source: Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)Author(s): F. Gómez-Veiga, A. Alcaraz-Asensio, J. Burgos-Revilla, J. Cózar-OlmoAbstractObjectiveTo put forth new findings of urologic oncology with an impact on clinical practice presented during 2017 in the main annual meetings.MethodsThis document reviews abstracts on prostate, kidney and bladder cancer presented at the congresses of 2016 (EAU, AUA, ASCO, ESMO and ASTRO) and publications with the highest impact in this period valued with the highest scores by the OncoForum committee.ResultsAmong...
Source: Actas Urologicas Espanolas - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Gene therapy has been evaluated for the treatment of prostate cancer and includes the application of adenoviral vectors encoding a suicide gene or oncolytic adenoviruses that may be armed with a functional transgene. In parallel, versions of adenoviral vector expressing the p53 gene (Ad-p53) have been tested as treatments for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and non-small cell lung cancer. Although Ad-p53 gene therapy has yielded some interesting results when applied to prostate cancer, it has not been widely explored, perhaps due to current limitations of the approach. To achieve better functionality, improvements in...
Source: Clinics - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
(Stanford Medicine) People who develop abnormally frequent cases of a skin cancer known as basal cell carcinoma appear to be at significantly increased risk for the development of other cancers, including blood, breast, colon and prostate cancers, according to a preliminary study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
. Güniz Küçükgüzel Cyclooxygenase enzymes play a vital role in inflammatory pathways in the human body. Apart from their relation with inflammation, the additional involvement of COX-2 enzyme with cancer activity was recently discovered. In some cancer types the level of COX-2 enzyme is increased indicating that this enzyme could be a suitable target for cancer therapy. Based on these findings, we have synthesized some new diflunisal thiosemicarbazides and 1,2,4-triazoles and tested them against androgen-independent prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3), colon carcinoma (HCT-116), human breast canc...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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