ASCO 2018: highlights of urothelial cancer and prostate cancer

SummaryProstate cancer and urothelial carcinoma are the two most common urological cancers. The aim of this short review is to highlight abstracts from this year ’s ASCO Annual Meeting. The phase III SPCG-13 trial showed no difference in biochemical disease-free survival by the addition of docetaxel after primary radiation therapy of localized high-risk prostate cancer. In bone dominant metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer, the phase II radium -223 dose escalation study concluded that the currently used dose with 6 cycles of 55 kBq/kg remains the standard of care. The PARP inhibitor olaparib plus abiraterone provided a significant benefit in radiological progression-free survival compared with abiraterone alone, independent of homolog ous recombination repair (HRR) mutation status. In localized muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma, two phase II trials (ABACUS and PURE-01) exploring the pathological complete remission rate of atezolizumab and pembrolizumab prior to cystectomy in cisplatin-unfit or cisplatin-fit patients are prese nted. Novel targeted therapies such as fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies against nectin-4 confirmed astonishing objective response rates in heavily pretreated metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) patients, resulting in a median overall survival (OS) up to 13.8 months. Finally, updated 1‑year and 2‑year OS survival rates of pembrolizumab and atezolizum...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Abstract Large-gland proliferations of the prostate have gained considerable attention in the past decade. The differential diagnosis is quite broad but can be refined using histologic criteria and, sometimes, immunostains. Pathologists have come to realize that cribriform and intraductal as well as ductal carcinomas are particularly aggressive patterns, and should name them in diagnostic reporting when present. PMID: 30447836 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Clinical Prostate Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Surg Pathol Clin Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Research in Veterinary ScienceAuthor(s): Luis G. Rivera-Calderón, Carlos E. Fonseca-Alves, Priscila E. Kobayashi, Márcio Carvalho, Rosemeri O. Vasconcelos, Renée Laufer-AmorimAbstractThe mTOR/4E-BP1/eIF4E pathway plays important roles in the neoplastic transformation process and in tumour growth. In men, the mTOR/4E-BP1/eIF4E pathway was described as altered in different tumours, including prostate cancer (PC). Apart from humans, the dog is the only species that develops PC with high frequency and is considered a good model for comparative onco...
Source: Research in Veterinary Science - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
A 76-year-old man with biochemical failure after primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer had no malignant disease detected on 99mTc-MDP bone scan and diagnostic CT. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, is overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. The PSMA-targeted 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT demonstrated lymph node disease and photopenic defects in the left kidney associated with a cyst and biopsy-proven oncocytoma. Prostate-specific membrane antigen is expressed in the neovasculature of several solid tumors. It has been reported that PSMA expression is seen in approximately 50% of oncocyto...
Source: Clinical Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Interesting Images Source Type: research
ConclusionHerein, we evaluated a F-18-labeled PKM2-specific radiotracer, [18F]DASA-23, for the molecular imaging of prostate cancer with PET. [18F]DASA-23 revealed rapid and extensive uptake levels in cellular uptake studies of prostate cancer cells; however, there was only modest tumor uptake when evaluated in mouse subcutaneous tumor models.
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Authors: Vilhav C, Engström C, Naredi P, Novotny A, Bourghardt-Fagman J, Iresjö BM, Asting AG, Lundholm K Abstract Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are able to predict outcome in patients with breast, colon and prostate cancer and appear to be promising biomarkers of pancreatic carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate a statistically significant portal-arterial difference of CTCs during curative resection of periampullary cancer. A commercially available instrument (IsofluxR) was used to quantify blood content of CTC in 10 patients with periampullary cancer according to preoperative diagno...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the effect of LPA on autophagy-regulating pathways in various prostate-derived cancer cells including PC3, LNCaP and Du145 cells grown in complete medium and exposed to serum-free medium. Using Western blotting and ELISA, we determined that LPA stimulates the ERK and mTOR pathways in complete and serum-free medium. The mTOR pathway led to phosphorylation of S6K and ULK, which respectively stimulates protein synthesis and arrests autophagy. Consistent with this, LPA exposure suppressed autophagy as measured by LC3 maturation and formation of GFP-LC3 puncta. Altogether, these results suggest th...
Source: Biochemistry and Cell Biology - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Cell Biol Source Type: research
Abstract Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in industrialized countries. The annual incidence rate in Germany is about 60,000. Every year, 13,000 men die of this disease. Nevertheless, the 10-year survival rate is relatively favorable compared to other carcinomas.Prostate cancer screening is discussed controversially both nationally and internationally. This is due to the fact that the determination of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for tumor detection beginning in the 1980s led to over-diagnosis of clinically insignificant prostate cancer and consequently to over-therapy-usually by radical p...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
Eop Kim Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) is widely used in Asia for its various beneficial effects. Although many studies were conducted to understand the molecular mechanisms of PG, it is still unclear how the combinations of multiple ingredients work together to exert its therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to provide a comprehensive review of the systems-level mechanisms of PG by adopting network pharmacological analysis. We constructed a compound–target–disease network for PG using experimentally validated and machine-leaning-based prediction results. Each target of the network was...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Metabolic biomarkers of response to the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 in pre-clinical models of human colorectal and prostate carcinoma, Published online: 31 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41416-018-0242-3Metabolic biomarkers of response to the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 in pre-clinical models of human colorectal and prostate carcinoma
Source: British Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
To evaluate the prevalence, patterns of care and outcome of pathologically node-positive (pN+) prostate cancer (P-Ca) after radical prostatectomy from a provincial population database.
Source: Clinical Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
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