ASCO 2018: highlights of urothelial cancer and prostate cancer

SummaryProstate cancer and urothelial carcinoma are the two most common urological cancers. The aim of this short review is to highlight abstracts from this year ’s ASCO Annual Meeting. The phase III SPCG-13 trial showed no difference in biochemical disease-free survival by the addition of docetaxel after primary radiation therapy of localized high-risk prostate cancer. In bone dominant metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer, the phase II radium -223 dose escalation study concluded that the currently used dose with 6 cycles of 55 kBq/kg remains the standard of care. The PARP inhibitor olaparib plus abiraterone provided a significant benefit in radiological progression-free survival compared with abiraterone alone, independent of homolog ous recombination repair (HRR) mutation status. In localized muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma, two phase II trials (ABACUS and PURE-01) exploring the pathological complete remission rate of atezolizumab and pembrolizumab prior to cystectomy in cisplatin-unfit or cisplatin-fit patients are prese nted. Novel targeted therapies such as fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies against nectin-4 confirmed astonishing objective response rates in heavily pretreated metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) patients, resulting in a median overall survival (OS) up to 13.8 months. Finally, updated 1‑year and 2‑year OS survival rates of pembrolizumab and atezolizum...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Serum PSA level of 0.2 ng/mL as the definition for biochemical recurrence after RP may delay salvage treatment. Our results showed that cut off value of ?0.1 ng/mL may be more precise in the era of early salvage treatment. PMID: 31004342 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Urology Journal - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Urol J Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our data suggests that the precancerous unstable CNVs with potentially predisposing genetic backgrounds may foster the onset of driver mutations and the development of independent SM-GGNs during the local stimulation of mutagens. Introduction The widespread use of advanced chest computed tomography (CT) for lung cancer screening has facilitated the detection of ground-glass nodules (GGNs) (1–3). Recent data indicates that up to 20% of GGN patients (3% of the screening population) are diagnosed with synchronous multiple ground-glass nodules (SM-GGNs) (4). GGNs are like atypical adenomatous hyperplasi...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions In this review, we analyzed mechanisms through which mitobolites, a distinct set of mitochondria-generated metabolites, can be released from mitochondria and then act as second messengers that contribute to cellular and organismal aging by regulating longevity-defining processes outside of mitochondria. Our analysis indicates that in eukaryotes across phyla, these second messengers of cellular aging exhibit the following common features: (1) they are produced in mitochondria in response to certain changes in the nutrient, stress, proliferation or age status of the cell; it remains unknown, however, what kind o...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Conclusions and Perspectives In this review, we have discussed important milestones from the early description of “Serum-sickness” as being due to antibodies directed against Neu5Gc epitopes all the way to the present-day therapeutic implications of these antibodies in cancer therapy. Some of these milestones have been represented in a concise timeline (Figure 6). While the “Xenosialitis” hypothesis is well-supported in the human-like mouse models, it has yet to be conclusively proven in humans. It remains to be seen if “Xenosialitis” plays a role in other uniquely-human diseases. FI...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Dan Hu1†, Meijin Zhang2†, Hejun Zhang1, Yan Xia1, Jinxiu Lin2, Xiongwei Zheng1, Feng Peng2* and Wenquan Niu3* 1Department of Pathology, Fujian Cancer Hospital &Fujian Medical University Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou, China 2Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China 3Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China Background and Objectives: Growing evidence indicates that metabolic syndrome confers a differential risk for the development and progression of many types of cancer, especially in the digestive tr...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Markus Hartl* and Rainer Schneider Center of Molecular Biosciences (CMBI), Institute of Biochemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria The neuronal proteins GAP43 (neuromodulin), MARCKS, and BASP1 are highly expressed in the growth cones of nerve cells where they are involved in signal transmission and cytoskeleton organization. Although their primary structures are unrelated, these signaling proteins share several structural properties like fatty acid modification, and the presence of cationic effector domains. GAP43, MARCKS, and BASP1 bind to cell membrane phospholipids, a process reversibly regulate...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Lei Liu1,2,3, Lin Zhang1,2, Shuo Zhao4, Xu-Yang Zhao1,2, Peng-Xiang Min4, Ya-Dong Ma4, Yue-Yuan Wang4, Yan Chen1,2, Si-Jie Tang4, Yu-Jie Zhang2,4, Jun Du2,4 and Luo Gu2,4* 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China 2Jiangsu Key Lab of Cancer Biomarkers, Prevention and Treatment, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Personalized Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China 3Department of Physiology, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China 4Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China Tumor cell migration is a critical step...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Minghui Wan†, Lei Zhang†, Yiming Chen, Qiang Li, Wenli Fan, Qingxia Xue, Fang Yan* and Weiguo Song* School of Pharmacy, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, China Based on the structure of sanguinarine, fourteen phenanthridine derivatives were designed and synthesized in the current study. The cytotoxic activities of synthesized compounds were evaluated against five human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, PC3, Hela, A549, and HepG2 cell lines) via MTT assay. Among all the compounds tested, molecule 8a exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cells with a IC50 value of 0.28 μM. A following u...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Xiaohui Xu, Congmin Ma, Zhihui Duan, Yanjiao Du and Chao Liu* Department of Neurology, Luoyang Central Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University, Luoyang, China Oxidized-low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) can induce injury of endothelial cells, causing atherosclerosis, which is an important initial event in several cardiovascular diseases. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as regulators of diverse biological processes, but their specific biological functions and biochemical mechanisms in ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell injury have not been well investigated. Here, we describe the initial functional an...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Abstract Jagged1, the essential ligand of the Notch signalling pathway, is highly expressed in metastatic prostate cancer, and its high expression in breast cancer is linked to poor survival rates. However, the mechanism of Jagged1's involvement in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the roles of Jagged1 in the platinum resistance of ovarian cancer and its possible mechanisms. Compared with a platinum responsive group of ovarian epithelial cell carcinomas, we found the positive staining intensity of Notch1, Notch2, Jagged...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research
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