Answer to Case 502

Answer:Borreliaspp., relapsing fever group. Molecular studies are needed to definitively identify the causative agent. However, knowing the exposure history of the patient also helps narrow the differential. In this case, we later found out that the patient is from the northwestern part of North America, and therefore this is most likelyBorrelia hermsii,one of the tick-borne relapsing feverBorreliaspecies.The other tick-borneBorreliain North America areB. parkeriiandB. turicatae.These species are transmitted through the bite of a soft-bodied tick in the genusOrnithodoros,and are usually associated with exposure to'rustic'settings such as cabins and lean-tos.There is a nice article on the geographic distribution ofB. hermsiithat you can readHERE.Borrelia recurrentis,the causative agent of louse-borne relapsing fever, is rarely seen in North America, given that body lice are relatively uncommon and usually associated with overcrowding and social disruption. However,B. recurrentisinfection has a similar clinical presentation to the tick-borne relapsing fevers, and the spirochetes have an identical appearance on peripheral blood smear.Borreliaspirochetes appear as long spiral-shaped bacilli (5-20 microns in length) with relatively regular undulations. As William mentions, there are other spiral-shaped or curved bacteria as well; some are curved or wavy rods (e.g.Vibrio, Campylobacter, Helicobacter), whereas others are true spirochetes (Borrelia, TreponemaandLeptospiraspp.). Of th...
Source: Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites - Category: Parasitology Source Type: blogs

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ConclusionsOverall results revealed that herbal plants may be active in the development of novel and cheap antimalarial compounds.
Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines - Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionsCampylobacter jejuni ST50, ST51 and ST257 are among the top ten of STs isolated in Europe. WGS revealed diversity of serotypes and LOS classes in ST50 strains, that deserves further clinical and epidemiological investigations as it might be related to a risk of post-infectious neurological sequels such as Guillain-Barr é syndrome. Additionally, the results implicate lower pathogenic potential and distinct transmission chains or reservoirs forC. jejuni ST51 isolates responsible for campylobacteriosis in northeastern Poland.
Source: Gut Pathogens - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
The common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an outstanding model to study the molecular basis of anti-pathogen immunity. The parasitic nematode Heterorhabditis gerrardi, together with its mutualistic bacteria Photorhabdus asymbiotica, infects a wide range of insects, including D. melanogaster. Recently we have shown that Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-ß) signaling in D. melanogaster is regulated in response to parasitic nematode infection. In the current study, we investigated the contribution of two TGF-ß signaling branches, the activin and the Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP), to D. melanogaster i...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
The molecular bases of the host-parasitoid interactions in the biological system Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera, Aphididae) - Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) have been elucidated allowing the identification of a gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, the active component of maternal venom secretion, and teratocytes, the embryonic parasitic factors responsible for the host physiology regulation after parasitization. Teratocytes, cells deriving from the dissociation of serosa, the parasitoid embryonic membrane, are responsible for extra-oral digestion of host tissues in order to provide a suitable nutritio...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Antimicrobial resistance was determined for 341 thermophilic Campylobacter jejuni isolates obtained from human clinical cases (n = 101), broiler products (n = 98), dairy cattle (n = 41) and wild birds (n = 101) with known multilocus sequence types (MLST) in Lithuania. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamycin, ceftriaxone and erythromycin were determined with the agar dilution method. MIC values were compared with MLST types to find possible associations among isolation source, sequence type and resistance to antibiotics. The proportions of resistant strains were 94.2% (h...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
An effective vaccine against the Plasmodium parasite is likely to require the induction of robust antibody and T cell responses. Chimeric virus-like particles are an effective vaccine platform for induction of antibody responses, but their capacity to induce robust cellular responses and protection against pathogen challenge when incorporating T cell epitopes has not been established. To evaluate this, we produced chimeric constructs using the murine polyomavirus structural protein with surface-exposed CD8+ or CD4+ T cell or B cell repeat epitopes derived from the Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite protein, and assessed im...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we used the AOM/DSS-induced CAC mice model to explore the miRNAs that were aberrantly expressed. As a result, we found that miR-31-5p, miR-223-3p, and let-7f-5p were dysregulated during the intestinal atypical hyperplasia. Subsequently, we first identified the role of these three miRNAs in CAC. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) was revealed a new target of miR-223-3p, while solute carrier family 9- subfamily A-member 9 (SLC9A9) and APC membrane recruitment protein 3 (AMER3) were two new targets for let-7f-5p. For miR-31-5p, we proved that it can target LATS2 mRNA so as to modulate Hippo pathway in Caco2 cells...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Source: Infection and Drug Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infection and Drug Resistance Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of EOs of cinnamon (CEO), rosemary (REO), and oregano (OEO) EOs encapsulated in oil-in-water nanoemulsions prepared using high-frequency ultrasound and applied onto fresh celery inoculated with Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. The characteristics of CEO, REO, and OEO nanoemulsions were: pH, 4.69–5.84; viscosity, 1.844–1993 mPa s; density, 1.004–1.018 g/cm3; color parameters, Lh > 80 (ah: negative and bh: positive); particle size (D50) 226–546 nm; phase separation, 80%. Compared with the nonencapsulated EOs, EOs nano...
Source: LWT Food Science and Technology - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2019Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Nikhil Kumar Mahnot, Charu Lata Mahanta, Brian E. Farkas, Kevin M. Keener, N.N. MisraAbstractIn the current work we evaluated the effect of atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) generated in air and M65 (65% O2, 30% CO2, 5%N2) as working gases for inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocyotogenes in tender coconut water. A 5 log10 reduction in the population of both microbes was achieved in tender coconut water with addition of 400 ppm citric acid and plasma treatment with M65 gas for 120 s at 90 kV, followed by a 24 h post-treatment...
Source: Food Control - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
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