Mind wandering perspective on ADHD
Publication date: Available online 20 July 2018Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Natali Bozhilova, Giorgia Michelini, Jonna Kuntsi, Philip AshersonAbstractAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a range of mental health, neurocognitive and functional problems. Although the diagnosis is based on descriptions of behaviour, individuals with ADHD characteristically describe excessive spontaneous mind wandering (MW). MW in individuals with ADHD reflects constant mental activity which lacks topic stability and content consistency. Based on this review of the neural correlates of ADHD and mind wandering, we outline a new perspective on ADHD: the MW hypothesis. We propose that altered deactivation of the default mode network, and dysfunctional interaction with the executive control network, leads to excessive and spontaneous MW, which underpins symptoms and impairments of ADHD. We highlight that processes linked to the normal neural regulation of MW (context regulation, sensory decoupling, salience thresholds) are deficient in ADHD. MW-related measures could serve as markers of the disease process, as MW can be experimentally manipulated, as well as measured using rating scales, and experience sampling during both cognitive tasks and daily life. MW may therefore be a potential endophenotype.
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2020Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Elin Skott, Liu L. Yang, Miranda Stiernborg, Åsa Söderström, Joelle Ruegg, Martin Schalling, Yvonne Forsell, MaiBritt Giacobini, Catharina Lavebratt
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate if the behaviours suggestive of ADHD were more frequent in a population of children attending the Emergency Department (ED) for injuries, rather than for other causes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carr...
Conditions: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; Youths Intervention: Sponsor: University Hospital, Montpellier Recruiting
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2020Source: Academic PediatricsAuthor(s): Jessica E. Rast, Kristy A. Anderson, Anne M. Roux, Paul T. Shattuck
AbstractA previous randomised controlled trial demonstrated the effects of a telephone-assisted self-help (TASH) intervention for parents of pharmacologically treated children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on ADHD symptoms, oppositional symptoms, functional impairment, and negative parenting behaviour (p er-protocol analyses). In the current study, we examined whether changes in positive and negative parenting behaviour mediated the effects on symptoms and impairment. Parents in an enhancement group (n = 51) participated in a 12-month TASH intervention (eight booklets plus up to 1...
Epigenomics, Ahead of Print.
The advent and application of high-throughput sequencing is revolutionizing our understanding of the molecular neurobiology of diverse psychiatric disorders. Whole-genome sequencing, which targets the coding regions of the genome, and whole-exome sequencing are being applied to study multiple psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and Tourette ’s disorder, among others [(1–3); https://schema.broadinstitute.org]. These studies have demonstrated a role for ultrarare, deleterious, frequently de novo variation in each disorder, and h...
Tourette syndrome (TS), also known as Tourette ’s disorder, is a neurodevelopmental disorder with onset in early childhood characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic that have been present for longer than 1 year. TS is a model neuropsychiatric disorder, in that the vast majority of affected individuals, whether ascertained in clinical or community settings, experience at least one co-occurring psychiatric disorder, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and/or mood, anxiety, and specific learning disorders (1).
This study shows that ATs may be engaged in the development of SUDs. To explore the connection between ATs and SUDs, more research is needed.
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2020Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Sheut-Ling Lam, Marion Criaud, Analucia Alegria, Gareth J. Barker, Vincent Giampietro, Katya Rubia