7 T MRI reveals hippocampal structural abnormalities associated with memory intrusions in childhood-onset schizophrenia

The hippocampus exhibits striking volume reductions in schizophrenia (van Erp et al., 2016), with regionally specific changes in subfields cornu ammonis 1 to 4 (CA1-4), dentate gyrus, and subiculum (Mathew et al., 2014). Models of hippocampal function suggest an association with memory deficits in schizophrenia patients; for example, impairment of the pattern separation component of declarative memory in schizophrenia suggests dentate gyrus dysfunction (Das et al., 2014). As yet, however, there is incomplete understanding of how subfield structure contributes to these impairments.
Source: Schizophrenia Research - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

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Authors: Karpov B, Joffe G, Aaltonen K, Oksanen J, Suominen K, Melartin T, Baryshnikov I, Koivisto M, Heikkinen M, Isometsä ET Abstract BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to psychiatric treatment is a common clinical problem, leading to unfavourable treatment outcome and increased healthcare costs. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the self-reported adherence and attitudes to outpatient visits and pharmacotherapy in specialized care psychiatric patients. METHODS: Within the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium (HUPC) pilot study, in- and outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disor...
Source: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Nord J Psychiatry Source Type: research
ConclusionOur findings indicate that ECT may induce brain plasticity as indexed by grey matter volume change during the treatment of schizophrenia via distinct mechanics from those by antipsychotic medications. ECT may ameliorate the positive psychotic symptoms of patients suffering from schizophrenia by preferentially targeting limbic brain areas such as the parahippocampal gyrus/hippocampus.
Source: Brain Stimulation - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
The objectives of this report were to assess the effectiveness, harms, cost-effectiveness, and lived experience of CBT for psychosis in improving outcomes for adults with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia. Methods: We performed literature searches on March 28 and April 5, 2017, and undertook a qualitative synthesis of systematic reviews of the clinical and economic literature comparing CBT for psychosis with any comparator interventions (e.g., usual care, waitlist control, or pharmacotherapy) in adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia as defined by any criteria (including related disorders such as schizoaffective d...
Source: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series - Category: General Medicine Tags: Ont Health Technol Assess Ser Source Type: research
We examined the effects of 3 weeks treatment of Olz (7.5 mg/kg/day) on c-Fos protein expression in stress-relevant brain sub/regions, its relationship with isolation-induced behavioural changes, and potential sites of Olz action on control and male rats exposed to 6 weeks of chronic social isolation (CSIS), an animal model of depression. Olz treatment reversed depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours induced by CSIS and suppressed a CSIS-induced increase in the number of c-Fos positive cells in subregions of the dorsal hippocampus, ventral (v) DG, retrosplenial cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex. In contrast, no change in...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight a key role of the nucleus accumbens in cigarette craving in schizophrenia and suggest that the subjective valuation of cigarette cues is increased in this population. Similar neurofunctional studies on cravings for other psychoactive substances in schizophrenia are warranted. PMID: 30445892 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Dual Diagnosis - Category: Addiction Tags: J Dual Diagn Source Type: research
In conclusion, nVHL triggers behavioral abnormalities in postpubertal rats that can be associated not only with the lack of dendritic spines but also with distortion of these structures in corticolimbic neurons. Hence, the nVHL can be useful to explore the mechanisms of the dendritic spine pathology and its implications for schizophrenia.
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is often considered as an augmentation of antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia in drug-refractory cases. However, the mechanisms underlying the observed therapeutic effects are still not understood.
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Mental Health - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Nevena Todorović, Bojana Mićić, Marija Schwirtlich, Milena Stevanović, Dragana FilipovićAbstractDysregulation of GABAergic system is becoming increasingly associated with depression, psychiatric disorder that imposes severe clinical, social and economic burden. Special attention is paid to the fast-spiking parvalbumin positive (PV+) interneurons, GABAergic neurons which are highly susceptible to redox dysregulation and oxidative stress and implicated in a variety of psychiatric diseases. Here we analyzed the number of PV+ and cleaved cas...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
UCLA biologists have discovered how head injuries adversely affect individual cells and genes  that can lead to serious brain disorders. The life scientists provide the first cell “atlas” of the hippocampus — the part of the brain that helps regulate learning and memory — when it is affected by traumatic brain injury. The team also proposes gene candidates for treating brain disease s associated with traumatic brain injury, such as Alzheimer’s disease and post-traumatic stress disorder.The researchers studied more than 6,000 cells in 15 hippocampal cell types — the first study of in...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
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