Streams of Unconsciousness V: Stability Reflected in the Pyriphlegethon

As represented by the Italian poet Dante, the plutonic rivers Lethe, Styx, Acheron, and Cocytus can be interpreted as supplying amnesia, hypnosis, analgesia, and akinesia, respectively —later regarded as properties of general anesthesia. However, of the five great streams of the Greco-Roman underworld, only the molten river Pyriphlegethon (Greek for “fire-flaming”) boils the souls of the most violent offenders. Indeed, egregious and impulsive behaviors of tyrants, murderers, and other violent offenders melt away in the lava-like Pyriphlegethon. By flowing over and engulfing the violent, the river stabilizes the previously unstable. Perhaps this stabilizing effect of Pyriphlegethon reflects one final property of general anesthesia, cardiovascular and autonomic stability . (Copyright © the American Society of Anesthesiologists’ Wood Library-Museum of Anesthesiology.)
Source: Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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The objective of this systematic review is to describe the available literature on the anesthetic considerations of pediatric ECT. Original publications were screened for inclusion criteria: (1) manuscript written in English; (2) persons under 18 years of age; and (3) use of ECT. Data tabulation included demographic information, details of anesthetic management and ECT procedure, and adverse events. The mean age was 15 years, 90% were 12-17 years of age, and no cases involving children
Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Anesth Analg Source Type: research
ConclusionIntroducin ukg THRIVE to the Electroconvulsive therapy suite as a unique airway technique maintained adequate oxygen saturation airway patency during the period of apnoea in patients paralyzed. THRIVE also gives an alternative for oxygenation in high risk patients in the ECT suite remote to main theatres.
Source: Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
The fragile X premutation is characterized by a repeat expansion mutation (between 55 to 200 CGG repeats) in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene, which leads to RNA toxicity at the cellular level. This may cause patients with the premutation to be particularly susceptible to environmental toxins, which could manifest clinically as new or worsening ataxia and memory loss. Multiple published case reports have also suggested general anesthetics as a potential toxin leading to negative side effects when used in patients with fragile X-associated disorders. However, at this time, there have been no formal research st...
Source: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 27 May 2019Source: Trends in Pharmacological SciencesAuthor(s): Hugh C. Hemmings, Paul M. Riegelhaupt, Max B. Kelz, Ken Solt, Roderic G. Eckenhoff, Beverley A. Orser, Peter A. GoldsteinSignificant progress has been made in the 21st century towards a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of action of general anesthetics, coincident with progress in structural biology and molecular, cellular, and systems neuroscience. This review summarizes important new findings that include target identification through structural determination of anesthetic binding sites, details of receptors and...
Source: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Editor ’s PerspectiveWhat We Already Know about This TopicThe extent to which alterations within specific brain networks impairs communication among networks remains unknownWhat This Article Tells Us That Is NewIn a volunteer functional magnetic resonance study, general anesthesia reduced activity within and among networksSpecific between-network connectivity is necessary for consciousnessBackground A key feature of the human brain is its capability to adapt flexibly to changing external stimuli. This capability can be eliminated by general anesthesia, a state characterized by unresponsiveness, amnesia, and (most lik...
Source: Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsIntraoperative ischemic events are not uncommon in DBS surgery. Ischemia can cause serious permanent complications, and regions subject to severe ischemia cannot be restored; it is therefore necessary to pay careful attention to any signs of ischemia. iMRI objectively provides the basis for early diagnosis of intraoperative ischemic infarction, providing guidance for follow-up treatment. The deviation in the entry point on the cortex or in the path resulted in vascular injury; it may be the key cause of ischemic events during DBS procedures.
Source: Acta Neurochirurgica - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
Docosahexaenoic Acid Increases the Potency of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor in Alleviating Streptozotocin-Induced Alzheimer’s Disease-Like Complications of Diabetes Rohit Pardeshi1, Nityanand Bolshette2, Kundlik Gadhave3, Mohammad Arfeen4, Sahabuddin Ahmed4, Rohitash Jamwal5, Bruce D. Hammock6, Mangala Lahkar2 and Sumanta Kumar Goswami6* 1Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, India 2Institutional Level Biotech Hub (IBT Hub), Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Educatio...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Marco Vacante1, Antonio Biondi1, Francesco Basile1, Roberto Ciuni1, Salvatore Luca1, Salomone Di Saverio2, Carola Buscemi3, Enzo Saretto Dante Vicari3 and Antonio Maria Borzì3* 1Department of General Surgery and Medical-Surgical Specialties, University of Catania, Catania, Italy 2Cambridge Colorectal Unit, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, United Kingdom 3Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Specialization School in Geriatrics, University of Catania, Catania, Italy There is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in the elderly population, mainly among women. The mo...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
In conclusion, these results indicated that loganin produced beneficial sedative and hypnotic activity, which might be mainly mediated by modification of the serotonergic system and GABAergic neurons. Introduction Insomnia is referred to as continuous difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, which can induce extreme medical and psychiatric disorders (Cao et al., 2016). It was reported that 27 percent of people in the world suffering from insomnia (Doghramji, 2006), and approximately 3–10 percent of people would frequently depend on hypnotics to overcome insomnia by 2050 (Chu et al., 2007). Clinically, b...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion Currently available pharmacotherapies for PTSD are poorly effective on a substantial proportion of patients. Given this high rate of pharmacological unresponsiveness, further studies are needed to extend the knowledge of the basic mechanisms associated with the pathophysiology of this disorder. The findings discussed in this review suggest that DAergic dysfunction, especially genetic-dependent DAergic alteration, plays a prominent role in the pathophysiology of PTSD; as a consequence, drugs targeting the DAergic system might be therapeutically relevant. A better understanding of how and which DAergic dysfunctio...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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