Researchers identify brain area linked to motivational disruptions in binge eating
(Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior) Scientists at Rutgers Brain Health Institute have discovered that a small group of brain cells in the hypothalamus called 'orexin' neurons could be a promising target for medications for controlling binge eating episodes in individuals with obesity. These neurons, named for the chemical messenger they use to communicate with other brain cells, have previously been shown to be important for addiction to several drugs, including cocaine.
Inhibitory control refers to a central cognitive capacity involved in the interruption and correction of actions. Dysfunctions in these cognitive control processes have been identified as major maintaining mechanisms in a range of mental disorders such as ADHD, binge eating disorder, obesity, and addiction. Improving inhibitory control by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could ameliorate symptoms in a broad range of mental disorders.
ConclusionThis VBM study revealed an association between reported FA tendency and a neural correlate of disinhibited eating. Future studies with bigger sample sizes are needed in order to demonstrate that FA is sufficiently different from existing conditions (e.g., BED) to warrant classification as a distinct disease phenotype.
Conclusions: It seems that CME is being used to promote lisdexamfetamine for weight loss (a contraindicated use) and to highlight benefits of lisdexamfetamine while underplaying the risks.
ConclusionsAlthough the absence of control cases precludes conclusions regarding the specific role of ketogenic diets versus other forms of dietary restriction, this is the first report to demonstrate the feasibility of prescribing a ketogenic diet for patients with obesity who report binge eating and food addiction symptoms. Further research should seek to reproduce the observed effects in controlled trials as well as to explore potential etiologies.
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe food addiction model suggests the compelling hypothesis that compulsive overeating and drug addictions share common neurobiological underpinnings. However, neuroimaging results are inconsistent, and they are difficult to integrate with each other. This mini-review provides a critical overview of the human neuroimaging literature in food addiction and binge eating symptoms.Recent FindingsNeuroanatomical studies suggest the involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex in food addiction. Functional imaging studies have examined whether food addiction is associated with alterations during reward process...
This article provides a review of the preclinical and clinical pharmacology of lorcaserin, including its pharmacokinetic and safety profiles. Preclinical studies with lorcaserin initially focused on simple measures of food intake and body weight gain, but have now expanded to include studies on its effects on appetitive aspects of feeding behaviour and models of binge-eating. A significant number of studies have also shown that lorcaserin alters behaviours related to drug use and addiction, in rodents and non-human primates. Potential clinically-relevant effects of lorcaserin have also been reported in models of pain and s...
CONCLUSIONS: One-third of veterans who were overweight/obese screened positive for engaging in making weight behaviors during military service. Findings provide evidence that efforts to "make weight" are related to binge eating and eating pathology later in life. Future research and clinical efforts should address how to best eliminate unhealthy weight control strategies in military service while also supporting healthy weight management efforts. PMID: 31471885 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Abstract Despite decades of research, few medications have gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the management of substance abuse disorder. The paucity of successful medications can be attributed, in part, to the lack of clearly identified neurobiological targets for addressing the core pathology of addictive behavior. Commonalities in the behavioral and brain processes involved in the rewarding effects of drugs and foods has prompted the evaluation of candidate medications that target neural pathways involved in both drug and eating disorders. Here, pharmacological strategies for the development...
CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that both FA and clinical level of binge eating are common problems in both overweight/obese patients seeking low-energy-diet therapy and in obese bariatric surgery candidates, justifying the clinical utility of assessing these dysfunctional eating patterns. PMID: 31282493 [PubMed - in process]
Conclusion The experience of failure moments, the struggle with making choices, and negative self-esteem and body image all develop in a different way for each participant. When professionals treat participants by solely focusing on the core symptoms using a one-dimensional cognitive behavioral approach, they may overlook underlying (biological) interactions.