Automated psychological therapy using immersive virtual reality for treatment of fear of heights: a single-blind, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: The Lancet PsychiatryAuthor(s): Daniel Freeman, Polly Haselton, Jason Freeman, Bernhard Spanlang, Sameer Kishore, Emily Albery, Megan Denne, Poppy Brown, Mel Slater, Alecia NicklessSummaryBackgroundEngaging, interactive, and automated virtual reality (VR) treatments might help solve the unmet needs of individuals with mental health disorders. We tested the efficacy of an automated cognitive intervention for fear of heights guided by an avatar virtual coach (animated using motion and voice capture of an actor) in VR and delivered with the latest consumer equipment.MethodsWe did a randomised trial of automated VR versus usual care. We recruited adults aged older than 18 years with a fear of heights by radio advertisements in Oxfordshire, UK. We diagnosed fear of heights if participants scored more than 29 on the Heights Interpretation Questionnaire (HIQ). We randomly allocated participants by computer in a 1:1 ratio to either automated VR delivered in roughly six 30-min sessions administered about two to three times a week over a 2-week period (intervention group) or to usual care (control group). Randomisation was stratified by severity of fear of heights. The research team, who were unaware of the random allocation, administered three fear-of-height assessments, at baseline (0 weeks), at the end of treatment (2 weeks), and at follow-up (4 weeks). The primary outcome measure was HIQ score (range 16–80, with higher sc...
CONCLUSION: Essential and dystonic vocal tremors responded differently to treatment. Dystonic vocal tremors responded significantly to treatment with botulinum toxin but not oral propranolol. Essential vocal tremors did not respond significantly to either treatment, perhaps due to the small number of patients, which is a limitation of this research.
CONCLUSION: Patients arrived very sick and displayed poor survival after deceased donor transplantation.
CONCLUSION: Except for the STOP-BANG questionnaire, subjective evaluation of sleepiness, sleep quality, perception of onset, and total sleep time are not important parameters for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea, which reinforces the need for an active search for better management of these patients.
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