Surprising conservation of schizophrenia risk genes in lower organisms reflects their essential function and the evolution of genetic liability

Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness that affects approximately 1% of the population. Genetic variation in multiple genes causes elevated risk for the disorder, but the molecular basis is inadequately understood and it is not clear how risk genes have evolved and persisted in the genome. To address these issues, we have identified orthologs/homologs of 344 schizophrenia risk genes (from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium dataset) in lower organisms, including C. elegans, Drosophila and zebrafish, along with phenotypes produced by genetic disruption in C.
Source: Schizophrenia Research - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research

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This study aimed to compare the effects of risperidone and paliperidone on BDNF and the N400 component of the event-related brain potential in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Methods: Ninety-eight patients with first-episode schizophrenia were randomly divided into the risperidone and paliperidone groups and treated with risperidone and paliperidone, respectively, for 12 weeks. Serum BDNF level, the latency, and amplitude of the N400 event-related potential before and after the treatment and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores were compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 94...
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
This study is aimed at investigating probable disruption of the metastable balance relevant to a disruption of the mental processes observed in the neurophenomenal level. This disruption was found to occur under dense auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) which are accompanied by thought blocking (TB) phenomena. The entropy that quantifies the complexity of the spontaneous coupling has been used to describe the observed transitions. According to our findings, the high synchrony-derived entropy (SE) defines a metastable state, where formations of cortical areas are able to coordinate transiently under the demands of stimulu...
Source: Behavioural Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behav Neurol Source Type: research
Abstract Cognitive dysfunction is common in many psychiatric disorders. While it has long been described as a core feature in schizophrenia, more recent data suggest qualitatively similar impairments in patients with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. There is compelling evidence to suggest that cognitive impairment contributes directly to functional disability and reduced quality of like across these disorders. As current treatments focus heavily on "primary" symptoms of mood and psychosis, the standard of care typically leaves cognitive deficits unmanaged. With this in mind, the field has ...
Source: CNS Spectrums - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Gender differences among adults with schizophrenia may vary depending on age; gender differences in negative symptoms may vary by symptom subgroup. PMID: 30236901 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Geriatr Psychiatry Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate real-world effectiveness of PP1M and OAA therapies among U.S.-based adult Medicaid patients with schizophrenia, overall and among young adults aged 18-35. METHODS: Adult patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and ≥2 claims for PP1M or OAA between 01/01/2010 and 12/31/2014 were selected from the Truven Health MarketScan Medicaid Database. Treatment patterns and healthcare resource utilization and costs were compared between PP1M and OAA treatment groups following inverse probability of treatment (IPT) weighting to adjust for potential differences. Utilization and cost outcomes were es...
Source: Journal of Medical Economics - Category: Health Management Tags: J Med Econ Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Jasper Looijestijn, Jan Dirk Blom, Hans W. Hoek, Remco Renken, Edith Liemburg, Iris E.C. Sommer, André Aleman, Rutger GoekoopAbstractThe various models proposed for the mediation of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) implicate a considerable number of brain areas and mechanisms. To establish which of those mechanisms are actually involved in the mediation of AVH, we developed a novel method to analyze functional MRI data, which allows for the detection of the full network of mutually interacting brain states, and the identif...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): A. Purushotham, Vinod Kumar Sinha, Nishant Goyal, Sai Krishna Tikka
Source: Brain Stimulation - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This study examined whether insular changes response to MECT outcomes in SZ. Forty-two SZ were divided into two groups according to their treatment strategies. One group (MSZ, n = 21) received 4-weeks MECT together with antipsychotics; another group (DSZ, n = 21) was treated only with antipsychotics. Twenty-three healthy controls (HC) were also included. Structural and functional MRI were scanned twice (baseline and after 4-week treatment) for SZ and once for HC. Firstly, the insula was divided into three subregions based on resting-state functional connectivity (FC). Subsequently, gray matter volume (GMV) and voxe...
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Source: Schizophrenia Research - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, EarlyView.
Source: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
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