Inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 Axis Suppresses the Mitochondria-Related Protection Promoted by Gastrodin in Human Neuroblastoma Cells Exposed to Paraquat

AbstractMitochondria are double-membrane organelles involved in the transduction of energy from different metabolic substrates into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in mammalian cells. The oxidative phosphorylation system is comprised by the activity of the respiratory chain and the complex V (ATP synthase/ATPase). This system is dependent on oxygen gas (O2) in order to maintain a flux of electrons in the respiratory chain, since O2 is the final acceptor of these electrons. Electron leakage from this complex system leads to the continuous generation of reactive species in the cells. The mammalian cells exhibit certain mechanisms to attenuate the consequences originated from the constant exposure to these reactive species. In this context, the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and one of the enzymes whose expression is modulated by Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), take a central role in inducing cytoprotection in humans. Mitochondrial abnormalities are observed during intoxication and in certain diseases, including neurodegeneration. Mitochondrial protection promoted by natural compounds has attracted the attention of researchers due to the promising effects these agents induce experimentally. In this regard, we examined here whether and how gastrodin (GAS), a phenolic glucoside, would prevent the paraquat (PQ)-induced mitochondrial impairment in the SH-SY5Y cells. The cells were exposed to GAS (25  μM) for 4 h prior to the challeng...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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LGK974, a PORCUPINE inhibitor, mitigates cytotoxicity in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease by interfering with the WNT/β-CATENIN pathway. Toxicology. 2018 Sep 08;: Authors: Yang JM, Huang HM, Cheng JJ, Huang CL, Lee YC, Chiou CT, Huang HT, Huang NK, Yang YC Abstract Paraquat (PQ) as an herbicide has been demonstrated to impair dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons and highly correlate with the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). WNT/β-CATENIN signaling is known for the specification and neurogenesis of midbrain DAergic neurons and implicated as a therapeutic target in treating many disease...
Source: Toxicology - Category: Toxicology Authors: Tags: Toxicology Source Type: research
Abstract Heterozygous mutations in GBA, the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme glucosylceramidase beta/β-glucocerebrosidase, comprise the most common genetic risk factor for Parkinson disease (PD), but the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Here, we show that in GbaL444P/WT knockin mice, the L444P heterozygous Gba mutation triggers mitochondrial dysfunction by inhibiting autophagy and mitochondrial priming, two steps critical for the selective removal of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy, a process known as mitophagy. In SHSY-5Y neuroblastoma cells, the overexpression of L444P GBA im...
Source: Autophagy - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Autophagy Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that PN exhibited neuroprotective effects on the 6-OHDA-treated SH-SY5Y cells, thus providing a potential theoretical insight for the clinical application of PN against PD. PMID: 30143600 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
ndebring-Matton A Abstract Subcellular distribution of mitochondria in neurons is crucial for meeting the energetic demands, as well as the necessity to buffer Ca2+ within the axon, dendrites and synapses. Mitochondrial impairment is an important feature of Parkinson disease (PD), in which both familial parkinsonism genes DJ-1 and PINK1 have a great impact on mitochondrial function. We used differentiated human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cell lines with stable PINK1 or DJ-1 knockdown to study live motility of mitochondria in neurites. The frequency of anterograde and retrograde mitochondrial motility was decreased...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research
In this report, we investigated expression levels of STIM1 in brain tissues (medium frontal gyrus) of pathologically confirmed Alzheimer ’s disease patients, and observed that STIM1 protein expression level decreased with the progression of neurodegeneration. To study the role of STIM1 in neurodegeneration, a strategy was designed to knock-out the expression ofSTIM1 gene in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing, as an in vitro model to examine the phenotype of STIM1-deficient neuronal cells. It was proved that, while STIM1 is not required for the differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells, ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
ez-Alegre Esther Escudero José Luis Lavandera A series of fourteen new asymmetrical 1,3-diketone derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated in the ABTS, FRAP and DPPH assays as a new chemotype with antioxidant and drug-like properties. All the compounds displayed low cytotoxicity in comparison to curcumin against the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. Among them, (3Z,5E)-6-(2,5-difluoro-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-1,1,1-trifluoro-4-hydroxyhexa-3,5-dien-2-one (6b) and (3Z,5E)-6-(2,3-difluoro-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-1,1,1-trifluoro-4-hydroxyhexa-3,5-dien-2-one (7b) with excellent solubility and chemical stability in ...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In this study, we found that Dopamine affects the stability and function of ATG4, a redox-sensitive cysteine-protein involved in the processing of LC3, a key step in the formation of autophagosomes. Resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol with anti-oxidant and pro-autophagic properties, has shown neuroprotective potential in HD. Yet the molecular mechanism through which Resveratrol can protect HD cells against DA is not known. Here, we show that Resveratrol prevents the generation of ROS, restores the level of ATG4, allows the lipidation of LC3, facilitates the degradation of polyQ-Htt aggregates and protects the cells from Dopa...
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of GL extract (GLE) and the underlying mechanisms in the classic MPTP(1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-induced mouse model of PD. Mice were injected with MPTP to induce parkinsonism. Then the mice were administered GLE (400 mg kg-1 d-1, ig) for 4 weeks. We observed that GLE administration significantly improved locomotor performance and increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the substantia nigra pars compact (SNpc) of MPTP-treated mice. In in vitro study, treatment of neuroblastoma neuro-2a cells with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridin...
Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Acta Pharmacol Sin Source Type: research
Cyanidin is an anthocyanidin extracted from a variety of fruits and vegetables. Cyanidin showed benefits against diabetes, cancer, and atherosclerosis. However, the potential neuroprotective effects of cyanidin against Parkinson ’s disease (PD) have not been examined. Indicated concentrations of cyanidin (1, 3, 10, and 30 μmol/L) were incubated together with 0.5 mmol/L 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) to human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found cyanidin prevented MPP+-induced cell demise in a concentration-dependent manner. Cyanidin significantly reduced MPP+-induced apoptosis, this is reflected by decreased ...
Source: Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In this study, we found that Dopamine affects the stability and function of ATG4, a redox-sensitive cysteine-protein involved in the processing of LC3, a key step in the formation of autophagosomes. Resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol with anti-oxidant and pro-autophagic properties, has shown neuroprotective potential in HD. Yet the molecular mechanism through which Resveratrol can protect HD cells against DA is not known. Here, we show that Resveratrol prevents the generation of ROS, restores the level of ATG4, allows the lipidation of LC3, facilitates the degradation of polyQ-Htt aggregates and protects the cells from Dopa...
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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