Inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 Axis Suppresses the Mitochondria-Related Protection Promoted by Gastrodin in Human Neuroblastoma Cells Exposed to Paraquat

AbstractMitochondria are double-membrane organelles involved in the transduction of energy from different metabolic substrates into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in mammalian cells. The oxidative phosphorylation system is comprised by the activity of the respiratory chain and the complex V (ATP synthase/ATPase). This system is dependent on oxygen gas (O2) in order to maintain a flux of electrons in the respiratory chain, since O2 is the final acceptor of these electrons. Electron leakage from this complex system leads to the continuous generation of reactive species in the cells. The mammalian cells exhibit certain mechanisms to attenuate the consequences originated from the constant exposure to these reactive species. In this context, the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and one of the enzymes whose expression is modulated by Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), take a central role in inducing cytoprotection in humans. Mitochondrial abnormalities are observed during intoxication and in certain diseases, including neurodegeneration. Mitochondrial protection promoted by natural compounds has attracted the attention of researchers due to the promising effects these agents induce experimentally. In this regard, we examined here whether and how gastrodin (GAS), a phenolic glucoside, would prevent the paraquat (PQ)-induced mitochondrial impairment in the SH-SY5Y cells. The cells were exposed to GAS (25  μM) for 4 h prior to the challeng...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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This study examined the function of synphilin-1 in a PD model in vitro. We used an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). We established human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines that stably expressed human synphilin-1. We found that overexpression of synphilin-1 increased SH-SY5Y cell viability after MPP+ treatment. We further found that synphilin-1 significantly suppressed apoptotic changes in nuclei, including nuclear condensation and fragmentation, after MPP+ treatment. We showed that synphilin-1 significantly decreased MPP+-induced cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymeras...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
This study shows for the first time that MAO-A generated ROS is involved in quality control signalling, and increase in MAO-A protein levels leads to a protective cellular response in order to mediate removal of damaged macromolecules/organelles, but substrate availability may ultimately determine cell fate. The latter is particularly important in conditions such as Parkinson's disease, where a dopamine precursor is used to treat disease symptoms and highlights that the fate of MAO-A containing dopaminergic neurons may depend on both MAO-A levels and catecholamine substrate availability.Graphical abstract
Source: Redox Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In this report, we investigated expression levels of STIM1 in brain tissues (medium frontal gyrus) of pathologically confirmed Alzheimer ’s disease patients, and observed that STIM1 protein expression level decreased with the progression of neurodegeneration. To study the role of STIM1 in neurodegeneration, a strategy was designed to knock-out the expression ofSTIM1 gene in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing, as an in vitro model to examine the phenotype of STIM1-deficient neuronal cells. It was proved that, while STIM1 is not required for the differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells, ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Abstract A growing body of evidence suggests that secretion and assembly of insulin to amyloid fibrils reduce its efficacy in treating type II diabetes and may lead to dysfunctioning of several organs. The research presented here explores the effects of silibinin on the in vitro amyloid fibrillation and cytotoxicity of bovine insulin fibrils on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Interaction of the resulting structures with rat brain mitochondria was also investigated. Using a range of methods for amyloid detection we showed that insulin fibrillation was significantly inhibited by silibinin in a dose-dependent fash...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research
In this study, we aimed to investigate the mitochondrial mechanisms involved in the neuroprotection of PQQ both in vitro and in vivo. The cultured human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed to different concentrations of PQQ after which the cells were treated with rotenone. Electron microscopy images showed that PQQ could prevent the mitochondrial morphology damage. The down-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis related genes (PGC-1alpha and TFAM) and mitochondrial fission and fusion related genes (Drp1and Mfn2) in rotenone-injured SH-SY5Y cells could be inhibited by PQQ. PQQ could also promote the transposition of Dr...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is defined by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are associated with PD although it is not fully understood how neurons respond to these stresses. How adaptive and apoptotic neuronal stress response pathways are regulated and the thresholds at which they are activated remains ambiguous. Utilising SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, we show that MAPK/AP-1 pathways are critical in regulating the response to mitochondrial uncoupling. Here we found the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun can act in either a pro- or anti-apoptotic manner, ...
Source: The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Int J Biochem Cell Biol Source Type: research
LGK974, a PORCUPINE inhibitor, mitigates cytotoxicity in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease by interfering with the WNT/β-CATENIN pathway. Toxicology. 2018 Sep 08;: Authors: Yang JM, Huang HM, Cheng JJ, Huang CL, Lee YC, Chiou CT, Huang HT, Huang NK, Yang YC Abstract Paraquat (PQ) as an herbicide has been demonstrated to impair dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons and highly correlate with the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). WNT/β-CATENIN signaling is known for the specification and neurogenesis of midbrain DAergic neurons and implicated as a therapeutic target in treating many disease...
Source: Toxicology - Category: Toxicology Authors: Tags: Toxicology Source Type: research
Abstract Heterozygous mutations in GBA, the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme glucosylceramidase beta/β-glucocerebrosidase, comprise the most common genetic risk factor for Parkinson disease (PD), but the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Here, we show that in GbaL444P/WT knockin mice, the L444P heterozygous Gba mutation triggers mitochondrial dysfunction by inhibiting autophagy and mitochondrial priming, two steps critical for the selective removal of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy, a process known as mitophagy. In SHSY-5Y neuroblastoma cells, the overexpression of L444P GBA im...
Source: Autophagy - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Autophagy Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that PN exhibited neuroprotective effects on the 6-OHDA-treated SH-SY5Y cells, thus providing a potential theoretical insight for the clinical application of PN against PD. PMID: 30143600 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
ndebring-Matton A Abstract Subcellular distribution of mitochondria in neurons is crucial for meeting the energetic demands, as well as the necessity to buffer Ca2+ within the axon, dendrites and synapses. Mitochondrial impairment is an important feature of Parkinson disease (PD), in which both familial parkinsonism genes DJ-1 and PINK1 have a great impact on mitochondrial function. We used differentiated human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cell lines with stable PINK1 or DJ-1 knockdown to study live motility of mitochondria in neurites. The frequency of anterograde and retrograde mitochondrial motility was decreased...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research
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