Calcium signaling defects underlying salivary gland dysfunction

Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Indu AmbudkarAbstractSalivary glands secrete saliva, a mixture of proteins and fluids, which plays an extremely important role in the maintenance of oral health. Loss of salivary secretion causes a dry mouth condition, xerostomia, which has numerous deleterious consequences including opportunistic infections within the oral cavity, difficulties in eating and swallowing food, and problems with speech. Saliva secretion is regulated by stimulation of specific signaling mechanisms within the acinar cells of the gland. Neurotransmitter-stimulated increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) in acinar cells is the primary trigger for salivary fluid secretion from salivary glands, the loss of which is a critical factor underlying dry mouth conditions in patients. The increase in [Ca2+]i regulates multiple ion channel and transport activities that together generate the osmotic gradient which drives fluid secretion across the apical membrane. Ca2+ entry mediated by the Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry (SOCE) mechanism provides the essential [Ca2+]i signals to trigger salivary gland fluid secretion. Under physiological conditions depletion of ER-Ca2+ stores is caused by activation of IP3R by IP3 and this provides the stimulus for SOCE. Core components of SOCE in salivary gland acinar cells are the plasma membrane Ca2+ channels, Orai1 and TRPC1, and STIM1, a Ca2+-sensor prot...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Cell Research - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

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Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiation with helical tomotherapy achieved respectable locoregional control and overall survival, with acceptable toxicity, in head and neck cancer patients.Oncology
Source: Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Intensity-modulated radiation with helical tomotherapy achieved respectable locoregional control and overall survival, with acceptable toxicity, in head and neck cancer patients. PMID: 29895020 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncology Source Type: research
Despite advances in radiation delivery, mucositis and xerostomia continue to be debilitating problems for patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancers. Nigella sativa oil (NSO) is produced from an annual flowering plant that has shown biochemically reproducible and significant cytoprotective properties through anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant mechanisms when given orally. The goal of this study is to determine whether topical NSO demonstrates radioprotection in oral cavity tissues in mice.
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research
In this study, mice received 0 or 9 Gy irradiation to the oral cavity and salivary glands ± MnBuOE treatment. Changes in leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions were measured 24 h postirradiation. At 11 days postirradiation, mucositis was assessed with a cathepsin-sensitive near-infrared optical probe. Stimulated saliva production was quantified at 11 weeks postirradiation. Finally, histological analyses were conducted to assess the extent of long-term effects in salivary glands at 12 weeks postirradiation. MnBuOE reduced oral mucositis, xerostomia and salivary gland fibrosis after irradiation. Additionally, althoug...
Source: Radiation Research - Category: Physics Authors: Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Physician-assessed moderate to severe hoarseness and mild, moderate, or severe dysphagia are associated with clinically relevant decreases in patient-reported quality of life and functioning. Fibrosis and xerostomia of any severity were not associated with changes in any scale of functioning in this study population. PMID: 28079429 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Oncologica - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Acta Oncol Source Type: research
Authors: Butterworth C, McCaul L, Barclay C Abstract This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK and provides recommendations on the pre-treatment oral and dental assessment, during and after treatment and oral rehabilitation. Restorative dentists are core members of the multidisciplinary team treating head and neck cancer patients, involved from the treatment planning phase through to long-term rehabilitation. Recommendations • Preventative oral care must be delivered to patients whose cancer treatment will affect the or...
Source: Journal of Laryngology and Otology - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: J Laryngol Otol Source Type: research
Dysphagia and xerostomia are the main sequellae of chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and the main factors in reducing long-term patient quality of life. IMRT uses advanced technology to focus the high radiation doses on the targets and avoid irradiation of non-involved tissues. The decisions about sparing organs and tissues whose damage causes xerostomia and dysphagia depends on the evidence for dose–response relationships for the organs causing these sequellae. This paper discusses the evidence for the contribution of radiotherapy to xerostomia via damage of the major salivary glands (parotid and submandib...
Source: Journal of Radiation Research - Category: Physics Authors: Tags: Supplement - ICRR highlights Source Type: research
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Source: Head and Neck - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Dysgeusia is significant factor reducing quality of life and worsening dysphagia in patients receiving chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer. We investigated effects of doses to the oral cavity, salivary output (required to dissolve food particles) and patient-reported xerostomia, on patient-reported dysgeusia in a prospective study. Our main findings were significant effect of oral cavity doses ( D50=53 Gy at 3 months), and patient-reported xerostomia, but not salivary flow rates, on severity of dysgeusia.
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Clinical Investigation Source Type: research
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