Calcium signaling defects underlying salivary gland dysfunction

Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Indu AmbudkarAbstractSalivary glands secrete saliva, a mixture of proteins and fluids, which plays an extremely important role in the maintenance of oral health. Loss of salivary secretion causes a dry mouth condition, xerostomia, which has numerous deleterious consequences including opportunistic infections within the oral cavity, difficulties in eating and swallowing food, and problems with speech. Saliva secretion is regulated by stimulation of specific signaling mechanisms within the acinar cells of the gland. Neurotransmitter-stimulated increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) in acinar cells is the primary trigger for salivary fluid secretion from salivary glands, the loss of which is a critical factor underlying dry mouth conditions in patients. The increase in [Ca2+]i regulates multiple ion channel and transport activities that together generate the osmotic gradient which drives fluid secretion across the apical membrane. Ca2+ entry mediated by the Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry (SOCE) mechanism provides the essential [Ca2+]i signals to trigger salivary gland fluid secretion. Under physiological conditions depletion of ER-Ca2+ stores is caused by activation of IP3R by IP3 and this provides the stimulus for SOCE. Core components of SOCE in salivary gland acinar cells are the plasma membrane Ca2+ channels, Orai1 and TRPC1, and STIM1, a Ca2+-sensor prot...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Cell Research - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

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