Groundwater Contamination with Cadmium Concentrations in Some West U.P. Regions, India

Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Saudi Journal of Biological SciencesAuthor(s): Nida Idrees, B. Tabassum, ElsayedFathi Abd_Allah, Abeer Hashem, Robeena Sarah, Mohammad HashimAbstractWater is considered a vital resource because it is necessary for all aspects of human and ecosystem survival. However, due to natural processes and anthropogenic activities, various pollutants have been added to the ground water system. Among these, heavy metals are some of the most serious pollutants. Cd, a toxic heavy metal used in Ni-Cd batteries, the colouration of plastic and various discarded electronic products released into the water system causes serious health issues. The chronic exposure to Cd produces a wide variety of acute and chronic effects in humans. Cd accumulates in the human body, especially in the kidneys, resulting in kidney damage (renal tubular damage), which is a critical health effect. Other effects of Cd exposure are disturbances in calcium metabolism, hypercalciuria and the formation of kidney stones. High exposure to Cd can lead to lung cancer and prostate cancer; hence, poor quality water that may result in Cd toxicity has become a global concern. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the concentration of Cd in underground water sources in western U.P. regions. Water samples were acidified to 1% with nitric acid and then stored in double-capped polyethylene bottles for further analysis by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. After compar...
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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SMAD4 is the only common SMAD in TGF-β signaling that usually impedes immune cell activation in the tumor microenvironment. However, we demonstrated here that selective deletion of Smad4 in NK cells actually led to dramatically reduced tumor cell rejection and augmented tumor cell metastases, reduced murine CMV clearance, as well as impeded NK cell homeostasis and maturation. This was associated with a downregulation of granzyme B (Gzmb), Kit, and Prdm1 in Smad4-deficient NK cells. We further unveiled the mechanism by which SMAD4 promotes Gzmb expression. Gzmb was identified as a direct target of a transcriptional com...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
The stroma of solid tumors can exclude or limit immune infiltration, or lead to the recruitment of tumor-promoting rather than tumor-attacking immune cells. This finding was reported by Jayaprakash et al. in this issue of the JCI, and it was particularly prominent in the hypoxic zones of tumors in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) cancer models. A current clinical goal of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) is to extend its utility to more patients by converting immunologically “cold” tumors that do not provoke a strong immunological response to “hot” tumors that are invaded b...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Despite the success of immune checkpoint blockade against melanoma, many “cold” tumors like prostate cancer remain unresponsive. We found that hypoxic zones were prevalent across preclinical prostate cancer and resisted T cell infiltration even in the context of CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade. We demonstrated that the hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 reduces or eliminates hypoxia in these tumors. Combination therapy with this hypoxia-prodrug and checkpoint blockade cooperated to cure more than 80% of tumors in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate–derived (TRAMP-derived) TRAMP-C2 model. Immunofluo...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
The paper, titled 'Debt or Death?', used data on 9.5 million nationally-representative patients between 1998 and 2014, who spend an average of $92,098 a year trying to stay alive.
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Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018Source: European Journal of Surgical OncologyAuthor(s): Han-Yu Deng, Liang Hou, Panpan Zha, Kai-Li Huang, Lei PengAbstractBackgroundWhether sarcopenia has any impact on long-term survival of patients with surgically treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis focusing on current topic comprehensively for the first time.MethodsWe systematically searched relevant studies in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library up to July 3, 2018. Data of 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates as well as hazard ratio (HR)...
Source: European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO) - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Three-dimensional mammography screening detected 34 percent more breast cancer tumors than the traditional process of a single image, according to a study.
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The precision-targeted therapies show early, encouraging signs of reduced toxicities for medullary, thyroid cancers.Medscape Medical News
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