New insights into TGF-β/Smad signaling in tissue fibrosis

Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Chemico-Biological InteractionsAuthor(s): He-He Hu, Dan-Qian Chen, Yan-Ni Wang, Ya-Long Feng, Gang Cao, Nosratola D. Vaziri, Ying-Yong ZhaoAbstractTransforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is considered as a crucial mediator in tissue fibrosis and causes tissue scarring largely by activating its downstream small mother against decapentaplegic (Smad) signaling. Different TGF-β signalings play different roles in fibrogenesis. TGF-β1 directly activates Smad signaling which triggers pro-fibrotic gene overexpression. Excessive studies have demonstrated that dysregulation of TGF-β1/Smad pathway was an important pathogenic mechanism in tissue fibrosis. Smad2 and Smad3 are the two major downstream regulator that promote TGF-β1-mediated tissue fibrosis, while Smad7 serves as negative feedback regulator of TGF-β1/Smad pathway thereby protects against TGF-β1-mediated fibrosis. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in renal, hepatic, pulmonary and cardiac fibrosis, followed by an in-depth discussion of their molecular mechanisms of intervention effects both in vitro and in vivo. The role of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in tumor or cancer is also discussed. Additionally, the current advances also highlight targeting TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway for the prevention of tissue fibrosis. The review reveals comprehensive pathophysiolog...
Source: Chemico Biological Interactions - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Sante Roperto, Valeria Russo, Francesca De Falco, Alessandra Rosati, Cornel Catoi, Franco RopertoAbstractE5 protein, the major oncoprotein of the bovine Deltapapillomavirus genus, has been detected in 17 of the 19 urothelial cancers by molecular and morphological procedures. In 10 urothelial cancers, the oxygen sensitive subunit HIF-1α, which is upregulated by hypoxia, was overexpressed. Mitophagy, the selective autophagic removal of dysfunctional mitochondria, was upregulated in hypoxic neoplastic cells infected by BPVs which was...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Conclusion: Formal consensus was achieved for the first time on a core list of knowledge items on how exercises and physical activities might stimulate anticancer immunity. This core list might be considered at the time of developing training/educational interventions and/or continuing education for primary healthcare providers and CAM practitioners. Future studies are still needed to investigate if such consensual lists might improve congruence in cancer care continuum and improve survival rates and wellbeing of cancer patients and survivors. PMID: 31118968 [PubMed]
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Authors: Oei SL, Thronicke A, Schad F Abstract In early tumor development, cancer cells develop a plethora of strategies to escape surveillance from the adaptive and innate immune system. Cancer immunotherapies, in particular immune checkpoint inhibitors, are becoming a highly promising cancer therapeutic approach that has remarkable increased progress in combating various cancer types. Unfortunately, their mechanisms of action induce some complications, such as inflammatory reactions and immune-related adverse events. In the management of side effects during anticancer therapy, complementary and integrative therap...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Biosensors and BioelectronicsAuthor(s): Shao Su, Qian Sun, Ling Wan, Xiaodan Gu, Dan Zhu, Yi Zhou, Jie Chao, Lianhui WangAbstractUltrasensitive detection of cancer biomarkers has shown great promise for precision medicine. Here, a triple signal amplification strategy was developed for analysis of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) by using MoS2-based nanocomposites. Gold nanoparticles-decorated molybdenum disulfide nanocomposite (MoS2-AuNPs) was used to construct the modified electrode and nanoprobe, which could efficiently amplify electrochemical signal due to its large su...
Source: Biosensors and Bioelectronics - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Ester Saus, Susana Iraola-Guzmán, Jesse R. Willis, Anna Brunet-Vega, Toni GabaldónAbstractThe gastrointestinal tract harbors most of the microbiota associated with humans. In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in assessing the relationships between the gut microbiota and several gut alterations, including colorectal cancer. Changes in the gut microbiota in patients suffering colorectal cancer suggest a possible role of host-microbe interactions in the origin and development of this malignancy and, at th...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Soft Matter, 2019, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C9SM00526A, PaperMatteo Campo, Simon Kaspar Schnyder, John Jairo Molina, Thomas Speck, Ryoichi Yamamoto The migration of cells is relevant for processes such as morphogenesis, wound healing, and invasion of cancer cells. In order to move, single cells deform cyclically. However, it is not... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - Soft Matter latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: 25 May 2019Source: New Scientist, Volume 242, Issue 3231Author(s):
Source: New Scientist - Category: Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Preventive MedicineAuthor(s): Abbey E. Poirier, Yibing Ruan, Lauren A. Hebert, Xin Greversa, Stephen D. Walter, Paul J. Villeneuve, Darren R. Brenner, Christine M. Friedenreich, ComPARe Study Team
Source: Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Preventive MedicineAuthor(s): Christine M. Friedenreich, Amanda M. Barberio, Joy Pader, Abbey E. Poirier, Yibing Ruan, Xin Grevers, Stephen D. Walter, Paul J. Villeneuve, Darren R. Brenner, ComPARe Study Team
Source: Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Preventive MedicineAuthor(s): Xin Grevers, Yibing Ruan, Abbey E. Poirier, Stephen D. Walter, Paul J. Villeneuve, Christine M. Friedenreich, Darren R. Brenner, ComPARe Study Team
Source: Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
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