New insights into TGF-β/Smad signaling in tissue fibrosis

Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Chemico-Biological InteractionsAuthor(s): He-He Hu, Dan-Qian Chen, Yan-Ni Wang, Ya-Long Feng, Gang Cao, Nosratola D. Vaziri, Ying-Yong ZhaoAbstractTransforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is considered as a crucial mediator in tissue fibrosis and causes tissue scarring largely by activating its downstream small mother against decapentaplegic (Smad) signaling. Different TGF-β signalings play different roles in fibrogenesis. TGF-β1 directly activates Smad signaling which triggers pro-fibrotic gene overexpression. Excessive studies have demonstrated that dysregulation of TGF-β1/Smad pathway was an important pathogenic mechanism in tissue fibrosis. Smad2 and Smad3 are the two major downstream regulator that promote TGF-β1-mediated tissue fibrosis, while Smad7 serves as negative feedback regulator of TGF-β1/Smad pathway thereby protects against TGF-β1-mediated fibrosis. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in renal, hepatic, pulmonary and cardiac fibrosis, followed by an in-depth discussion of their molecular mechanisms of intervention effects both in vitro and in vivo. The role of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in tumor or cancer is also discussed. Additionally, the current advances also highlight targeting TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway for the prevention of tissue fibrosis. The review reveals comprehensive pathophysiolog...
Source: Chemico Biological Interactions - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

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Conclusions: We conclude that the downregulation of OCSC markers may signal a reduction in OCSC population following MMP20/DSPP silencing in OSCC cells, while also increasing their sensitivity to cisplatin. Thus, our findings suggest a potential role for DSPP and MMP20 in sustaining OCSC population in OSCCs, possibly, through mechanism(s) that alter OCSC sensitivity to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. PMID: 30002682 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Biol Lett Source Type: research
Authors: Liu F, Li C, Zhu J, Ren L, Qi X Abstract BACKGROUND AND AIM: ABO blood type is an invariant factor. There is a link between ABO blood type and some malignancies, such as gastric, pancreatic, and skin cancer. The role of ABO blood type in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to explore the relationship between ABO blood type and risk of HCC. METHODS: Literature search was conducted among the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: Seven papers were ...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
Publication date: September 2018Source: Clinica Chimica Acta, Volume 484Author(s): Yuejin Li, Weiwei Wang, Zheliang Liu, Yuan Jiang, Jinping Lu, Haitao Xie, Faqing TangAbstractBackgroundAnterior Gradient (AGR) 2 concentration increases in the serum of tumor patients, and their diagnostic and prognostic significances were evaluated in some tumors. The previous works showed that AGR2 high express in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) biopsy tissues. However, whether AGR2 serves as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for NPC remains unclear.Methods42 healthy volunteers, 34 breast cancer patients and 124 NPC patients were enrolled ...
Source: Clinica Chimica Acta - Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research
Authors: Kapałczyńska M, Kolenda T, Przybyła W, Zajączkowska M, Teresiak A, Filas V, Ibbs M, Bliźniak R, Łuczewski Ł, Lamperska K Abstract Cell culture is a widely used in vitro tool for improving our understanding of cell biology, tissue morphology, and mechanisms of diseases, drug action, protein production and the development of tissue engineering. Most research regarding cancer biology is based on experiments using two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures in vitro. However, 2D cultures have many limitations, such as the disturbance of interactions between the cellular and extracellular environments, changes in...
Source: Archives of Medical Science - Category: General Medicine Tags: Arch Med Sci Source Type: research
Conclusions: Our data indicated that colorectal cancer patients undergoing emergency surgery showed an advanced stage. The emergency patients had a higher rate of mortality than elective cases. PMID: 30002700 [PubMed]
Source: Archives of Medical Science - Category: General Medicine Tags: Arch Med Sci Source Type: research
Conclusions: These results imply that the up-regulation of UCA1 and MALAT1 lncRNAs in ESCC tissues can impact the degree of tumor progression and is predictive of postoperative survival. Therefore, the expression levels of these lncRNAs can be used as measurement indexes to determine the prognosis of ESCC patients. PMID: 30002691 [PubMed]
Source: Archives of Medical Science - Category: General Medicine Tags: Arch Med Sci Source Type: research
Conclusions: Taken together, this work demonstrated that miR-181b might have the ability to overcome chemo resistance of small cell lung cancer cells, and restoration of this miRNA may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for improving chemo sensitivity in small cell lung cancer. PMID: 30002690 [PubMed]
Source: Archives of Medical Science - Category: General Medicine Tags: Arch Med Sci Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 July 2018Source: Artificial Intelligence in MedicineAuthor(s): Aaron N. Richter, Taghi M. KhoshgoftaarAbstractAdvancements are constantly being made in oncology, improving prevention and treatment of cancers. To help reduce the impact and deadliness of cancers, they must be detected early. Additionally, there is a risk of cancers recurring after potentially curative treatments are performed. Predictive models can be built using historical patient data to model the characteristics of patients that developed cancer or relapsed. These models can then be deployed into clinical settings to ...
Source: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine - Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research
ConclusionsBy highlighting the conserved structural and functional domains of LDH from two entirely different species, this study has graded potential inhibitory molecules on the basis of their binding affinities so that they can be applied for in vivo anticancer studies.
Source: Electronic Journal of Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 July 2018Source: European UrologyAuthor(s): Giovanni Lavorgna, Francesco Montorsi, Andrea Salonia
Source: European Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
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