New insights into TGF-β/Smad signaling in tissue fibrosis

Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Chemico-Biological InteractionsAuthor(s): He-He Hu, Dan-Qian Chen, Yan-Ni Wang, Ya-Long Feng, Gang Cao, Nosratola D. Vaziri, Ying-Yong ZhaoAbstractTransforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is considered as a crucial mediator in tissue fibrosis and causes tissue scarring largely by activating its downstream small mother against decapentaplegic (Smad) signaling. Different TGF-β signalings play different roles in fibrogenesis. TGF-β1 directly activates Smad signaling which triggers pro-fibrotic gene overexpression. Excessive studies have demonstrated that dysregulation of TGF-β1/Smad pathway was an important pathogenic mechanism in tissue fibrosis. Smad2 and Smad3 are the two major downstream regulator that promote TGF-β1-mediated tissue fibrosis, while Smad7 serves as negative feedback regulator of TGF-β1/Smad pathway thereby protects against TGF-β1-mediated fibrosis. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in renal, hepatic, pulmonary and cardiac fibrosis, followed by an in-depth discussion of their molecular mechanisms of intervention effects both in vitro and in vivo. The role of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in tumor or cancer is also discussed. Additionally, the current advances also highlight targeting TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway for the prevention of tissue fibrosis. The review reveals comprehensive pathophysiolog...
Source: Chemico Biological Interactions - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the increased risk of skin cancer in transplant patients during the first 7 years of follow-up and made the dermatologists aware about the need of a regular cutaneous follow up for this subset of patients. PMID: 30229636 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia - Category: Dermatology Tags: G Ital Dermatol Venereol Source Type: research
Authors: Day D, Burgess CM, Kircik LH Abstract BACKGROUND: Melatonin is an endogenous hormone commonly associated with regulation of sleep. However, over the last two decades, research has elucidated a range of effects associated with the compound, including anti-inflammatory, both direct and indirect antioxidant activity, tissue regenerative benefits, and preservation of mitochondrial function. Melatonin's anti-inflammatory and antioxidant support, coupled with its mitochondrial support, make it an intriguing target for use to support skin health. Human skin and hair follicles express functional melatonin receptor...
Source: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Drugs Dermatol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2018Source: Journal of Biomedical InformaticsAuthor(s): Alex Graudenzi, Davide Maspero, Marzia Di Filippo, Marco Gnugnolo, Claudio Isella, Giancarlo Mauri, Enzo Medico, Marco Antoniotti, Chiara DamaniAbstractEffective stratification of cancer patients on the basis of their molecular make-up is a key open challenge. Given the altered and heterogenous nature of cancer metabolism, we here propose to use the overall expression of central carbon metabolism as biomarker to characterize groups of patients with important characteristics, such as response to ad-hoc therapeutic strateg...
Source: Journal of Biomedical Informatics - Category: Information Technology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2018Source: The Lancet HIVAuthor(s): Silvia Franceschi
Source: The Lancet HIV - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2018Source: The Lancet HIVAuthor(s): Nancy A Hessol, Hannah Whittemore, Eric Vittinghoff, Ling C Hsu, Danning Ma, Susan Scheer, Sandra K SchwarczSummaryBackgroundCancer survivors are at increased risk for subsequent primary cancers. People living with HIV are at increased risk for AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining cancers, but little is known about their risk of first versus second primary cancers. We identified first and second primary cancers that occurred in above population expected numbers among people diagnosed with HIV in San Francisco, and compared first and second ...
Source: The Lancet HIV - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Govindan Rajivgandhi, Thillaichidambaram Muneeswaran, Muthuchamy Maruthupandy, Kandasamy Saravanan, Vilwanathan Ravikumar, Natesan ManoharanAbstractThe current study aimed to identify bioactive compound from marine endophytic actinomycetes isolated from Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India. Among the isolated actinomycetes, strain GRG 4 exhibited excellent ability to inhibit colistin resistant (CR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia, which emerging threat to the world. The strain was identified as Streptomyces coer...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis study has elucidated the genome-wide effects of several adaptogenic herbal extracts in brain cells culture. These data highlight the consistent activation of ASRSPs by adaptogens in T98G neuroglia cells. The extracts affected many genes playing key roles in modulation of adaptive homeostasis, indicating their ability to modify gene expression to prevent stress-induced and aging-related disorders. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive look at the molecular mechanisms by which adaptogens exerts stress-protective effects.Graphycal abstract
Source: Phytomedicine - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionThis is the first study demonstrating efficacy of DLA and mechanistic differences of DLAe vs. AS, against NSCLC cells. Compared to AS, DLA possesses qualities of a novel therapeutic for patients with NSCLC.Graphical abstract
Source: Phytomedicine - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Mihnea Dragomir, George A. Calin
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionOur proposed nomogram based on Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, Ann Arbor stage, albumin-to-globulin ratio, and platelet count provides an individualized risk estimate of OS in patients with ENKTL.
Source: Clinical Lymphoma Myeloma and Leukemia - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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