Pre-Injection of Small Interfering RNA (siRNA) Promotes c-Jun Gene Silencing and Decreases the Survival Rate of Axotomy-Injured Spinal Motoneurons in Adult Mice

AbstractBrachial plexus injury is a common clinical peripheral nerve trauma. A series of genes in motoneurons were activated in the corresponding segments of the spinal cord after brachial plexus roots axotomy. The spatial and temporal expression of these genes directly affects the speed of motoneuron axon regeneration and precise target organ reinnervation. In a previous study, we observed the overexpression of c-Jun in motoneurons of the spinal cord ventral horn after brachial plexus injury in rats. However, the relevance of c-Jun expression with respect to the fate of axotomy-induced branchial plexus injury in adult mice remains unknown. In the present study, we explored the function of c-Jun in motoneuron recovery after axotomy. We pre-injected small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knockdown c-Jun expression in mice and examined the effects of the overexpression of c-Jun in motoneurons after the axotomy of the brachial plexus in vivo. Axotomy induced c-Jun overexpression in the ventral horn motoneurons of adult mice from 3 to 14  days after injury. In addition, the pre-injection of siRNA transiently inhibited c-Jun expression and decreased the survival rate of axotomy-injured motoneurons. These findings indicate that the axotomy-induced overexpression of c-Jun plays an important role in the survival of ventral horn motoneu rons in adult mice. In addition, the pre-injection of c-Jun siRNA through the brachial plexus stem effectively adjusts c-Jun gene expression at the ips...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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The Pathophysiology of Aortic Cross-clamping and Unclamping. By Gelman S. ANesthesiology 1995; 82:1026 –60. Reprinted with permission. Aortic cross-clamping (AoX) and unclamping are associated with severe hemodynamic disturbances in virtually all organs and systems. The main hemodynamic changes induced by AoX result from an increase in impedance to aortic flow, an increase in systemic vascular resi stance and afterload, blood volume redistribution caused by collapse and constriction of venous vasculature distal to the aortic clamp, and a subsequent increase in preload. Preload may not increase if the aorta is clamped...
Source: Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
This study is based on a newly discovered task-specific ,neural coupling ’ mechanism underlying cooperative hand movements.(Dietz et al. 2015) This neural coupling is reflected in the observation that during cooperative hand movements (e.g. opening a bottle) electromyographic (EMG) reflex responses can task-specifically be induced in activated forearm muscles of both s ides following unilateral arm nerve stimulation. Furthermore, recordings of somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) showed larger ipsilateral potentials during cooperative compared to non-cooperative bimanual hand movements.(Schrafl-Altermatt and Dietz 2...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Source Type: research
Spasticity occurs frequently following lesions of central motor pathways in neurological disorders such as stroke (Malhotra et al., 2009; Sommerfeld et al., 2012), spinal cord injury (Sheean, 2002), multiple sclerosis (MS) (Sinkjaer et al., 1993; Mayer, 1997) and cerebral palsy (CP) (Gracies, 2005). Spasticity is most commonly defined as a velocity dependent increase in muscle tone with exaggeration of the stretch reflex circuitry (Lance, 1980). However, in the clinic a somewhat broader understanding of spasticity, which also includes sustained muscle contractions such as spasms and spastic dystonia as well as alterations ...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Source Type: research
To determine the extent of daytime sleepiness in adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) and investigate the contribution of fatigue and autonomic function to sleepiness status.
Source: Journal of Psychosomatic Research - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion/Clinical relevance A person with high and complete level of SCI for more than 20 years can undertake this type of challenge if the prerequisites are met; this training is without danger if the safety precautions are respected; the challenge of participating in a competition had a powerful impact on JP's self-esteem and perceived quality of life. PMID: 30001192 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Spinal Cord Med Source Type: research
Authors: Kattimani Y, Veerappa AM Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system causing axonal injury, neuronal loss, and atrophy of the central nervous system leading to permanent neurological and clinical disability. Presence of mutations in M9 domain of HNRNPA1 and detection of autoantibodies against this domain in HNRNPA1 qualifies it as a strong candidate for causing MS. These two aspects indicate the presence of a facilitator in associating them. Varicella zoster virus (VZV), known to cause chicken pox infection in humans, is a significant contender in sensitizing t...
Source: Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research
STUDY DESIGN: Prediction study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prediction accuracy of the Downton fall risk index (DFRI) and a question of falls the previous year; further to examine the association between time to first fall and risk indicators fo...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
Nano LettersDOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b01816
Source: Nano Letters - Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Source Type: research
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most severe central nervous system injuries. Currently, transplanting bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is considered a therapeutic option for SCI. Tanshinone II...
Source: Journal of Translational Medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
ConclusionsOlder patients with SCI face additional challenges both in the acute setting and with ageing. Clinicians should take into account comorbid conditions, mental health, physical function, cognition and social support in making management decisions. With the global ageing population, health services planning will need to allow for increase in resources required to care for older patients with SCI.
Source: World Journal of Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
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