Cortical markers of cognitive syndromes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Monica Consonni, Valeria E. Contarino, Eleonora Catricalà, Eleonora Dalla Bella, Viviana Pensato, Cinzia Gellera, Giuseppe Lauria, Stefano F. CappaAbstractAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) can be associated with a spectrum of cognitive and behavioural symptoms, but the related patterns of focal cortical atrophy in non-demented ALS patients remain largely unknown. We enrolled 48 non-demented ALS patients and 26 healthy controls for a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and a magnetic resonance exam. Behavioural and cognitive impairment was defined on the basis of a data-driven multi-domain approach in 21 ALS patients. Averaged cortical thickness of 74 bilateral brain regions was used as a measure of cortical atrophy. Cortical thinning in a fronto-parietal network, suggesting a disease-specific pattern of neurodegeneration, was present in all patients, independent of cognitive and behavioural status. Between-group and correlational analyses revealed that inferior frontal, temporal, cingular and insular thinning are markers for cognitive and behavioural deficits, with language impairment mainly related to left temporal pole and insular involvement. These specific correlates support the concept of a spectrum of deficits, with an overlap between the ALS cognitive phenotypes and the syndromes of frontotemporal dementia.
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

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TDP-43 aggregates in neurons and glia are the defining pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), raising the possibility of glial damage in the disease pathogenesis. However, the normal physiological functions of TDP-43 in glia are largely unknown. To address how TDP-43 may be required for...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research
In this study, we identified Xrp1, a nuclear chromatin-binding protein, as a key modifier of caz mutant phenotypes. Xrp1 expression was strongly up-regulated in caz mutants, and Xrp1 heterozygosity rescued their motor defects and life span. Interestingly, selective neuronal Xrp1 knockdown was sufficient to rescue, and neuronal Xrp1 overexpression phenocopied caz mutant phenotypes. The caz/Xrp1 genetic interaction depended on the functionality of the AT-hook DNA-binding domain in Xrp1, and the majority of Xrp1-interacting proteins are involved in gene expression regulation. Consistently, caz mutants displayed gene expressio...
Source: Journal of Cell Biology - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Chromatin or Epigenetics, DNA Biology, Neuroscience Articles Source Type: research
We report here that C9orf72, which is linked to the most common forms of the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), is a key regulator of lipid metabolism under stress. Loss of C9orf72 leads to an overactivation of starvation-induced lipid metabolism that is mediated by dysregulated autophagic digestion of lipids and increased de novo fatty acid synthesis. C9orf72 acts by promoting the lysosomal degradation of coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1), which in turn regulates autophagy–lysosomal functions and lipid metabolism. In ALS/FTD pat...
Source: Genes and Development - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Research Papers Source Type: research
UBQLN2 is one of a family of proteins implicated in ubiquitin-dependent protein quality control and integrally tied to human neurodegenerative disease. Whereas wild-type UBQLN2 accumulates in intraneuronal deposits in several common age-related neurodegenerative diseases, mutations in the gene encoding this protein result in X-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia associated with...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research
Publication date: October 2018Source: PM&R, Volume 10, Issue 10Author(s): Flora M. Hammond, William Sauve, Fred Ledon, Charles Davis, Andrea E. FormellaAbstractBackgroundDextromethorphan 20 mg / quinidine 10 mg (DM/Q) was approved to treat pseudobulbar affect (PBA) based on phase 3 trials conducted in participants with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or multiple sclerosis. PRISM II evaluated DM/Q effectiveness, safety, and tolerability for PBA following stroke, dementia, or traumatic brain injury (TBI).ObjectiveTo report results from the TBI cohort of PRISM II, including a TBI-specific functional scale.DesignOpen-label trial...
Source: PMandR - Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research
In this study, we attempted to delineate the aggregation-prone sequences of the structural domain of TDP-43. Here, we investigated the self-assembly of peptides of TDP-43 using aggregation prediction algorithms, Zipper DB and AMYLPRED2. The three aggregation-prone peptides identified were from N-terminal domain (24GTVLLSTV31), and RNA recognition motifs, RRM1 (128GEVLMVQV135) and RRM2 (247DLIIKGIS254). Furthermore, the amyloid fibril forming propensities of these peptides were analyzed through different biophysical techniques and molecular dynamics simulation. Our study shows the different aggregation ability of conserved ...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Proteins and Proteomics - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
(University of Bath) The normal function of a gene associated with the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) has been determined for the first time by University of Bath scientists.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 20 October 2018Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of DiseaseAuthor(s): Samantha N. Cobos, Seth A. Bennett, Mariana P. TorrenteAbstractEvery year, neurodegenerative disorders take more than 5000 lives in the US alone. Cures have not yet been found for many of the multitude of neuropathies. The majority of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) cases have no known genetic basis. Thus, it is evident that contemporary genetic approaches have failed to explain the etiology or etiologies of ALS/FTD and PD. Recen...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Microsatellite expansions cause more than 40 neurological disorders, including Huntington's disease, myotonic dystrophy, and C9ORF72 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia (ALS/FTD). These repeat expansion mutations can produce repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) proteins in all three reading frames, which accumulate in disease-relevant tissues. There has been considerable interest in RAN protein products and their downstream consequences, particularly for the dipeptide proteins found in C9ORF72 ALS/FTD. Understanding how RAN translation occurs, what cellular factors contribute to RAN protein accumulation, and h...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Minireviews Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2018Source: Journal of Neuroscience MethodsAuthor(s): Wilson BarnabasAbstractBrain specific drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging areas of research. The blood-brain barrier separates the brain from blood and acts as a barrier to protect the brain from microorganisms, neurotoxins and chemical substances. But, the same mechanism poses an obstacle for the entry of many drugs into the brain. Worldwide, approximately 1.5 billion people are suffering from CNS disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophi...
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Methods - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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