The immunopathogenesis of chronic and relapsing autoimmune uveitis – Lessons from experimental rat models

Publication date: Available online 27 February 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Maria Diedrichs-Möhring, Ulrike Kaufmann, Gerhild WildnerAbstractAutoimmune diseases usually follow a relapsing-remitting or a chronic progressive course. To understand the underlying immunopathogenesis we investigated experimental Lewis rat models displaying both disease types, which were only dependent on the autoantigen peptide used for immunization. Retinal S-Antigen-peptide PDSAg induces chronic, monophasic disease, whilst interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP)-peptide R14 causes a spontaneously relapsing-remitting course. R14-mediated uveitis can be re-induced by immunization; PDSAg-induced disease is even preventable by prior CFA-injection. T cells with different antigen specificities preferentially infiltrate the eyes from different sites, e.g. choroid or retinal vessels, they remain in the retina after resolution of inflammation for many weeks. The major inflammatory cell populations in the eyes during rat uveitis are CD4+ or CD8+ monocytes/macrophages. Chemokine mutants only suppress PDSAg-mediated EAU, while IFN-α-treatment ameliorated R14-, but worsened PDSAg-induced disease. Comparison of T cells revealed upregulated expression of 26 genes related to various signal transduction pathways upstream and downstream of IFN-γ only in T cells causing relapsing EAU. Intraocular injection of IFN-γ induces synchronized relapses in R14-...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Related Links:

Abstract We hypothesize that, ancestrally, sex-specific immune modulation evolved to facilitate survival of the pregnant person in the presence of an invasive placenta and an immunologically challenging pregnancy - an idea we term the 'pregnancy compensation hypothesis' (PCH). Further, we propose that sex differences in immune function are mediated, at least in part, by the evolution of gene content and dosage on the sex chromosomes, and are regulated by reproductive hormones. Finally, we propose that changes in reproductive ecology in industrialized environments exacerbate these evolved sex differences, resulting...
Source: Trends in Genetics : TIG - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Trends Genet Source Type: research
Lupus is an autoimmune disease that causes a wide variety of symptoms. In this article, see pictures of lupus symptoms and learn more about the different types of this condition.
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Lupus Source Type: news
ConclusionExome sequencing as a first-tier test for PIDs granted a diagnosis for 28% of patients. Importantly, molecularly defined diagnoses indicated altered therapeutic options in 34% of cases. In addition, exome sequencing harbors advantages over gene panels as a truly generic test for all genetic diseases, including in silico extension of existing gene lists and re-analysis of existing data.
Source: Genome Medicine - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Several autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) cause increased transcription of endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) normally repressed by heterochromatin. In parallel, HERV-derived sequences were reported to drive gene expression. Here, we have examined a possible link between promoter and enhancer divergent transcription and the production of HERV transcripts. We find that HERV-derived sequences are in general counter-selected at regulatory regions, a counter-selection that is strongest in brain tissues while very moderate in stem cells. By exposing T cells to the pesticide dieldrin, we further found that a ser...
Source: EMBO Journal - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Chromatin, Epigenetics, Genomics & Functional Genomics, Molecular Biology of Disease Articles Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Andrew R. Deitchman, Or Kalchiem-Dekel, Nevins Todd, Robert M. ReedAbstractThe association between inflammatory myopathies anti-synthetase syndrome and interstitial lung disease has been recognized since the 1950s. Patients generally present with gradual onset of symptoms and slow progression of fibrosis over months to years. Herein, we describe a previously well 51-year-old man who presented with three months of progressive small joint arthritis, cough, dyspnea, and eventually hypoxemic respiratory failure following a viral ...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionsWomen with endometriosis do not express higher prevalence of autoantibodies found to be characteristic in other patient groups with gastrointestinal symptoms.
Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
This article discusses the medications used to treat AIBD prior to conception, during pregnancy, and while breastfeeding, as well as highlights those that are contraindicated. The preferred approach to management in these patients is also discussed. Additionally, we present the available information regarding neonates of mothers with a diagnosis of AIBD, including the likelihood, identification, and management of neonatal blistering and the effects from medication exposure in utero. PMID: 31195784 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia - Category: Dermatology Tags: G Ital Dermatol Venereol Source Type: research
Publication date: August 2019Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 112Author(s): Elizabeth A. Bemis, Jill M. Norris, Jennifer Seifert, Ashley Frazer-Abel, Yuko Okamoto, Marie L. Feser, M. Kristen Demoruelle, Kevin D. Deane, Nirmal K. Banda, V. Michael HolersAbstractRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex autoimmune disease with an etiology that is not yet well understood, disproportionally affects women and also varies in incidence and prevalence by population. The presence of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) is a highly specific biomarker for the diagnosis of clinically apparent RA. ACPA are also present in the ...
Source: Molecular Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the manifestation and significance of changes in both telomere length and the expression of human telomere protective protein (hPOT1) in the peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with atherosclerosis (AS). One hundred subjects-excluding those with acute or chronic inflammation, cancer, and autoimmune diseases-were enrolled in this study and divided into two groups: the atherosclerosis group (AS group) and control group. We extracted peripheral blood leukocyte DNA along with its peripheral proteins. After purity testing, a digoxigeninlabeled telomere probe was use...
Source: Atherosclerosis - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: J Nanosci Nanotechnol Source Type: research
Conclusions: These preliminary data suggest that ATX-GD-59 is a safe and well-tolerated treatment. The improvement in free thyroid hormones in 70% of subjects receiving the medication suggests potential efficacy as a novel treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism. PMID: 31194638 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Thyroid Source Type: research
More News: Autoimmune Disease | Eyes | Genetics | Lessons | Vitamin A