Two novel mechanisms for maintenance of stemness in mesenchymal stem cells: SCRG1/BST1 axis and cell–cell adhesion through N-cadherin

Publication date: February 2018Source: Japanese Dental Science Review, Volume 54, Issue 1Author(s): Naoyuki Chosa, Akira IshisakiSummaryMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) retain the ability to self-renew and differentiate into mesenchymal cells. Therefore, human MSCs are suitable candidates for use in regenerative medicine and cell therapies. Upon activation by tissue damage, MSCs contribute to tissue repair through a multitude of processes such as self-renewal, migration, and differentiation. However, loss of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential occurs at a high rate during cell doubling. Effective MSC therapies require the establishment of new techniques that preserve MSC multipotency after lengthy cell expansions. Here, two novel mechanisms are described for maintenance of stemness in MSCs via scrapie responsive gene 1 (SCRG1)/bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1 (BST1) ligand–receptor combination and cell–cell adhesion through N-cadherin. These two mechanisms findings provide a valuable tool for regenerative medicine and cell therapeutic methods that require the ex vivo expansion of human MSCs while maintaining native stem cell potential.
Source: Japanese Dental Science Review - Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

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In conclusion, we succeeded in generating an iPSC-based RAG2-SCID model, which enabled the identification of previously unrecognized disorder-related T cell developmental roadblocks.Graphical Abstract
Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
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Source: Neuromics - Category: Neuroscience Tags: adult stem cells FBS Fetal Bovine Serum Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells MSCs Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells RPES Source Type: news
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Source: Current Opinion in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Heather E. Moss Source Type: research
Genetic lineage tracing is widely used to study organ development and tissue regeneration. Multicolor reporters are a powerful platform for simultaneously tracking discrete cell populations. Here, combining Dre-rox and Cre-loxP systems, we generated a new dual-recombinase reporter system, called Rosa26 traffic light reporter (R26-TLR), to monitor red, green, and yellow fluorescence. Using this new reporter system with the three distinct fluorescent reporters combined on one allele, we found that the readouts of the two recombinases Cre and Dre simultaneously reflect Cre+Dre−, Cre−Dre+, and Cre+Dre+ cell lineage...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Developmental Biology Source Type: research
J Knee Surg DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1700978To improve the long-term outcomes of high tibial osteotomy (HTO) for gonarthritis, many cartilage repair procedures appeared, but their effects were controversial. To evaluate the efficacy of cartilage repair procedures during HTO for gonarthritis, we performed this update meta-analysis. We performed the system retrieval for clinical trials using various databases and then pooled the outcomes of the included studies. Fifteen studies were involved. The pooled results indicated that there were no significant differences in Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) scale (mean difference [MD] =&...
Source: Journal of Knee Surgery - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
The objective of this study is to investigate how opioids potentiate HIV disease progression by compromising intestinal barrier function and impairing intestinal epithelial self-repair mechanism. In the present study, abnormal intestinal morphology and reduced epithelial proliferation were observed in bone marrow-liver-thymus humanized mice and in HIV-infected patients who were exposed to opioids. In bone marrow-liver-thymus mice, HIV, and morphine independently, and additively induced gut dysbiosis, especially depletion of Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Muribaculaceae. We also observed that the abundance of Lachnos...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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Source: Materials Today - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
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Source: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia - Category: Surgery Tags: Ann Ital Chir Source Type: research
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Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Int J Med Sci Source Type: research
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