Establishment of pseudovirus infection mouse models for in vivo pharmacodynamics evaluation of filovirus entry inhibitors

Publication date: March 2018Source: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B, Volume 8, Issue 2Author(s): Qing Chen, Ke Tang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Panpan Chen, Ying GuoAbstractFiloviruses cause severe and fatal viral hemorrhagic fever in humans. Filovirus research has been extensive since the 2014 Ebola outbreak. Due to their high pathogenicity and mortality, live filoviruses require Biosafety Level-4 (BSL-4) facilities, which have restricted the development of anti-filovirus vaccines and drugs. An HIV-based pseudovirus cell infection assay is widely used for viral entry studies in BSL-2 conditions. Here, we successfully constructed nine in vitro pseudo-filovirus models covering all filovirus genera and three in vivo pseudo-filovirus-infection mouse models using Ebola virus, Marburg virus, and Lloviu virus as representative viruses. The pseudo-filovirus-infected mice showed visualizing bioluminescence in a dose-dependent manner. A bioluminescence peak in mice was reached on day 5 post-infection for Ebola virus and Marburg virus and on day 4 post-infection for Lloviu virus. Two known filovirus entry inhibitors, clomiphene and toremiphene, were used to validate the model. Collectively, our study shows that all genera of filoviruses can be well-pseudotyped and are infectious in vitro. The pseudo-filovirus-infection mouse models can be used for in vivo activity evaluation of anti-filovirus drugs. This sequential in vitro and in vivo evaluation system of filovirus entry inhibitors provides a secure a...
Source: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Recent occurrences of filoviruses and the arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) in overlapping endemic areas of Africa highlight the need for a prophylactic vaccine that would confer protection against all of these viruses that cause lethal hemorrhagic fever (HF). We developed a quadrivalent formulation of VesiculoVax that contains recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vectors expressing filovirus glycoproteins and that also contains a rVSV vector expressing the glycoprotein of a lineage IV strain of LASV. Cynomolgus macaques were vaccinated twice with the quadrivalent formulation, followed by challenge 28 days after the b...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
ler After more than 28,000 Ebola virus disease cases and at least 11,000 deaths in West Africa during the 2014–2016 epidemic, the world remains without a licensed vaccine or therapeutic broadly available and demonstrated to alleviate suffering. This deficiency has been felt acutely in the two, short, following years with two Ebola virus outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and a Marburg virus outbreak in Uganda. Despite billions of U.S. dollars invested in developing medical countermeasures for filoviruses in the antecedent decades, resulting in an array of preventative, diagnostic, and therap...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In this report we identify common over the counter antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and chlorcyclizine (Ahist) as potential candidates for repurposing as anti-filovirus agents. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this potential is wide-spread through the 1st generation of H1-specific antihistamines but is not present in newer drugs or drugs targeting H2, H3 and H4 receptors. We showed that the filovirus entry inhibition is not dependent on the classical antagonism of cell surface histamine or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors but occurs in the endosome, like the cathepsin inhibitor CA-074. Finally, using ex...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Antiviral Research, Volume 151 Author(s): Wenjun Zhu, Zirui Zhang, Shihua He, Gary Wong, Logan Banadyga, Xiangguo Qiu Filoviruses, such as Marburg and Ebola viruses, cause severe disease in humans with high case fatality rates and are therefore considered biological threat agents. To date, no licensed vaccine or therapeutic exists for their treatment. T-705 (favipiravir) is a pyrazinecarboxamide derivative that has shown broad antiviral activity against a number of viruses and is clinically licenced in Japan to treat influenza. Here we report the efficacy of T-705 against Marburg virus ...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Filoviruses, such as Marburg and Ebola viruses, cause severe disease in humans with high case fatality rates and are therefore considered biological threat agents. To date, no licensed vaccine or therapeutic exists for their treatment. T-705 (favipiravir) is a pyrazinecarboxamide derivative that has shown broad antiviral activity against a number of viruses and is clinically licenced in Japan to treat influenza. Here we report the efficacy of T-705 against Marburg virus infection in vitro and in vivo. Notably, oral administration of T-705 beginning one or two days post-infection and continuing for eight d...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017 Source:Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B Author(s): Qing Chen, Ke Tang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Panpan Chen, Ying Guo Filoviruses cause severe and fatal viral hemorrhagic fever in humans. Filovirus research has been extensive since the 2014 Ebola outbreak. Due to their high pathogenicity and mortality, live filoviruses require Biosafety Level-4 (BSL-4) facilities, which have restricted the development of anti-filovirus vaccines and drugs. An HIV-based pseudovirus cell infection assay is widely used for viral entry studies in BSL-2 conditions. Here, we successfully constructed nine in v...
Source: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
We report that immune responses in MARV survivors share characteristics with EBOV and SUDV infections but have some distinct differences. MARV survivors developed multivariate CD4+ T cell responses but limited CD8+ T cell responses, more in keeping with SUDV survivors than EBOV survivors. In stark contrast to SUDV survivors, rare neutralizing antibody responses in MARV survivors diminished rapidly after the outbreak. These results warrant serious consideration for any vaccine or therapeutic that seeks to be broadly protective, as different filoviruses may require different immune responses to achieve immunity.
Source: The Journal of Experimental Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Infectious Disease and Host Defense Brief Definitive Reports Source Type: research
AbstractThe filoviruses, Ebola virus (EBOV), and Marburg virus (MARV), are among the most pathogenic viruses known to man and the causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in Africa with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Nearly 30,000 infections were observed in the latest EBOV epidemic in West Africa; previous outbreaks were much smaller, typically only affecting less than a few hundred people. Compared to other diseases such as AIDS or Malaria with millions of cases annually, filovirus hemorrhagic fever (FHF) is one of the neglected infectious diseases. There are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics available...
Source: Virus Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
As observed during the 2013–2016 Ebola virus disease epidemic, containment of filovirus outbreaks is challenging and made more difficult by the lack of approved vaccine or therapeutic options. Marburg and Ravn viruses are highly virulent and cause severe and frequently lethal disease in humans. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a platform technology in wide use for autoimmune and oncology indications. Previously, we described human mAbs that can protect mice from lethal challenge with Marburg virus. We demonstrate that one of these mAbs, MR191-N, can confer a survival benefit of up to 100% to Marburg or Ravn virus&nda...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
By Drs. David Niesel and Norbert Herzog Sometimes I have to remind myself we are in the 21st Century when I hear that infectious diseases are a leading cause of death among adults and remain the leading cause of death in children. While most of these deaths occur in the developing world, a significant number occur in middle income countries. Vaccines are the most cost effective medical intervention known to prevent infectious diseases. An effective vaccine can significantly reduce the mortality associated with them. However, while we have come a long way, the reality is that we have relatively few effective vaccines. O...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
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