Effects of exercise training on cytokines and adipokines in multiple Sclerosis: A systematic review

ConclusionResearch regarding the effects of exercise training on cytokines and adipokines in MS is in its infancy, but exercise represents an adjuvant therapy in MS, and future studies are essential for clarifying the role of exercise on cytokines and adipokines in MS.
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Background: Sustained cognitive testing is used to detect cognitive fatigability and is often considered a substitute for subjective cognitive fatigue (CF). However, the relationship between cognitive fatigability and subjective CF in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) remains undetermined. Objective: To explore potential associations between fatigability induced by sustained cognitive testing and subjective CF in PwMS. Methods: We gave 120 PwMS and 60 demographically matched, healthy individuals the Beck Depression Inventory—FastScreen (BDI–FS) to measure mood and the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale t...
Source: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe proposed MRI protocol can adapt to a range of clinical settings, aiding the impetus towards standardisation of practice and offering an example of research-informed service improvement to support optimisation  of resources. Other neurological conditions, where a gap still exists between published guidelines and their clinical implementation, may benefit from this same approach.
Source: Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe AR can be visualised in clinical 1.5  T and 3 T DTI scans using single-fibre probabilistic analysis via DP, hence, the potential for DP to visualise the AR in medical and pre-surgical applications in pathologies such as vestibular schwannoma, multiple sclerosis, thalamic tumours and stroke as well as hearing loss.
Source: Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Condition:   Multiple Sclerosis Interventions:   Diagnostic Test: Entire-body PET-CT scans;   Drug: Amyvid radiopharmaceutical Sponsor:   Brain Health Alliance Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
199Objectives: Although multiple disease-modifying immunomodulatory therapies are available for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS)1, therapeutic selection and monitoring is hampered by the lack of sensitive central nervous system (CNS) immune biomarkers. Increasing evidence indicates that the presence, extent, and spatiotemporal dynamics of activated myeloid cells (i.e., macrophages, microglia, monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells) have the potential to serve as clinically meaningful biomarkers of active MS2. Hence, there is a critical need for non-invasive molecular imaging strategies to accurately quan...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Preclinical Probes for Neuroimaging I Source Type: research
151Introduction: Specific measurement of demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS) with in vivo imaging techniques is difficult. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the prevailing technique to study in vivo brain disorders; it has excellent spatial resolution and high sensitivity to myelin damage but lacks molecular specificity [1]. Positron emission tomography (PET) yields excellent biochemical specificity but suffers from relatively poor spatial resolution. Therefore, combining MRI and PET can be a powerful imaging strategy, benefiting from the complementary information provided by both techniques. We evaluated a...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Basic Science - New tracers/analysis Source Type: research
Conclusions: [18F]3F4AP showed high sensitivity to what appears to be a chronic TBI in a rhesus macaque, suggestive of increased K+channel expression and plausible demyelination. Further investigation with other PET tracers showed reduced perfusion at the site of injury without inflammation or amyloid deposition and possible demyelination. Some of the MR findings (decreased MTR) were consistent with demyelination but not others (reduced T2-FLAIR). Histopathology will be performed when postmortem samples are available to understand what is driving the [18F]3F4AP uptake. Support: R01NS114066 P41EB022544 T32EB013180 S10OD0180035
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Basic Science - New tracers/analysis Source Type: research
ConclusionsReactivation of pre-existing lesions is limited to a tiny fraction of MRI studies. Gd  + T1-weighted images could be omitted, in patients treated with DMT for at least 6 months, without relevant loss of information.
Source: Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeThe γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter and essential for normal brain function. The GABAergic system has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects and respond adaptively to excitatory toxicity. The association of the GABAergic system and inflammation in patients with m ultiple sclerosis (MS) remains unknown. In this pilot study, thein vivo relationship between GABAA binding and the innate immune response is explored using positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C] flumazenil (FMZ) and [11C]-PK11195 PET (PK-PET), a measure of activated microglia/macrophages.Procedure...
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
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