Two novel mechanisms for maintenance of stemness in mesenchymal stem cells: SCRG1/BST1 axis and cell–cell adhesion through N-cadherin

Publication date: February 2018Source: Japanese Dental Science Review, Volume 54, Issue 1Author(s): Naoyuki Chosa, Akira IshisakiSummaryMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) retain the ability to self-renew and differentiate into mesenchymal cells. Therefore, human MSCs are suitable candidates for use in regenerative medicine and cell therapies. Upon activation by tissue damage, MSCs contribute to tissue repair through a multitude of processes such as self-renewal, migration, and differentiation. However, loss of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential occurs at a high rate during cell doubling. Effective MSC therapies require the establishment of new techniques that preserve MSC multipotency after lengthy cell expansions. Here, two novel mechanisms are described for maintenance of stemness in MSCs via scrapie responsive gene 1 (SCRG1)/bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1 (BST1) ligand–receptor combination and cell–cell adhesion through N-cadherin. These two mechanisms findings provide a valuable tool for regenerative medicine and cell therapeutic methods that require the ex vivo expansion of human MSCs while maintaining native stem cell potential.
Source: Japanese Dental Science Review - Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

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Publication date: 21 January 2020Source: Cell Reports, Volume 30, Issue 3Author(s): Carmit Hillel-Karniel, Chava Rosen, Irit Milman-Krentsis, Ran Orgad, Esther Bachar-Lustig, Elias Shezen, Yair ReisnerSummaryInduction of lung regeneration by transplantation of lung progenitor cells is a critical preclinical challenge. Recently, we demonstrated that robust lung regeneration can be achieved if the endogenous stem cell niches in the recipient’s lung are vacated by sub-lethal pre-conditioning. However, overcoming MHC barriers is an additional requirement for clinical application of this attractive approach. We demonstrat...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Conclusion:Our findings demonstrate that rTMS treatment and hMSC transplantation could synergistically create a favorable microenvironment for cell survival within the PD rat brain, through alteration of soluble factors such as neurotrophic/growth factors and anti-/pro-inflammatory cytokines related to neuronal protection or repair, with preservation of DA neurons and improvement of motor functions.
Source: Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: LncRNA LINC00707 promoted osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs by targeting LRP5 mediated by miR-145 through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. PMID: 31957814 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Takashi Hoshiba, Natsumi YokoyamaAbstractThe regulation of stem cell differentiation is key for muscle tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. To this end, various substrates mimicking the native extracellular matrix (ECM) have been developed with consideration of the mechanical, topological, and biochemical properties. However, mimicking the biochemical properties of the native ECM is difficult due to its compositional complexity. To develop substrates that mimic the native ECM and its bi...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Cell Research - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Delivery of exosomes derived from stem cell populations has been demonstrated to improve recovery from injury in numerous studies and human applications. The interesting aspect of this demonstration in stroke recovery in pigs is that exosomes from neural stem cells provoke greater functional recovery without improving some of the structural changes that are normally associated with greater mortality and loss of function. Researchers have presented brain imaging data for a new stroke treatment that supported full recovery in swine, modeled with the same pattern of neurodegeneration as seen in humans with severe str...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
AbstractSkin repair and reconstruction are important after severe wound and trauma. Keratinocyte stem cells (KSCs) in the basal layer of the epidermis can regrow the stratified epidermis but are almost depleted after skin injury. Thus, generating enough KSCs is indispensable for skin regeneration. Pluripotent stem cells such as ESC and iPSC can differentiate into KSCs, but their applications are challenged by ethical issues and risks of tumor formation. Lineage reprogramming from one cell type into another one makes it feasible to generate the desired cell type. Here, we develop a method to convert human fibroblasts into i...
Source: Biotechnology Progress - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
The J.P. Morgan Healthcare conference runs every year in San Francisco, a big draw for the biotech industry, and many organizations take the opportunity to host events at the same time. Among these, the SENS Research Foundation has for the past few years hosted a pitch day in which biotech companies in the longevity industry, largely startups, present to that portion of the Bay Area investor community interested in funding the treatment of aging as a medical condition. I was there to present on progress at Repair Biotechnologies, and took some notes on the other companies as they talked about their work. Kimera Labs ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Investment Source Type: blogs
Conclusion: It can be concluded that A/S similar to TGF ‑β1 is able to facilitate the chondrogenicdifferentiation of hADSCs and do not have adverse effects of TGF ‑β1. Thus, TGF‑β1 can be replacedby A/S in the field of tissue engineering.
Source: Dental Research Journal - Category: Dentistry Source Type: research
Negative regulators of adult neurogenesis are of particular interest as targets to enhance neuronal repair, but few have yet been identified. Planarians can regenerate their entire CNS using pluripotent adult stem cells, and this process is robustly regulated to ensure that new neurons are produced in proper abundance. Using a high-throughput pipeline to quantify brain chemosensory neurons, we identify the conserved tyrosine kinasetec-1 as a negative regulator of planarian neuronal regeneration.tec-1RNAi increased the abundance of several CNS and PNS neuron subtypes regenerated or maintained through homeostasis, without af...
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Developmental Biology Source Type: research
Cell Death &Disease, Published online: 20 January 2020; doi:10.1038/s41419-020-2238-1P53 and Parkin co-regulate mitophagy in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to promote the repair of early steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head
Source: Cell death and disease - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
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