Study: Intrapleural Air Flow Can Enhance Mesothelioma CT Scans

Researchers in Australia believe they have discovered a simple way to enhance the accuracy of CT scanning for pleural abnormalities, potentially leading to better diagnostics for mesothelioma cancer. A research team from the University of Western Australia in Perth has shown the sensitivity of CT scans — used in the diagnostic process — can be improved by creating intrapleural air flow. The discovery stems from their six test cases of malignancies, including four patients with pleural mesothelioma. Chest Journal, the official publication of the American College of Chest Physicians, published the study in June. “This is a proof of principle paper, not quite ready to advocate for all patients yet,” Dr. Gary Lee, professor of respiratory medicine, University of West Australia, told Asbestos.com. “However, it is a very exciting step.” Earlier Diagnosis Could be Huge Improving the diagnostic process for mesothelioma is critical to finding more effective treatment options and longer survival for patients. Pleural mesothelioma typically comes with a poor prognosis. Most patients live less than 18 months after a diagnosis, which usually isn’t made until the cancer has progressed into stage 3 or 4. By the later stages, treatment options are limited and typically palliative in nature. Mesothelioma is caused by long-before exposure to asbestos. But the latency period between exposure and diagnosis can be anywhere from 20 to 50 years, allowing...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Source Type: news

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Popovici V Abstract The dysfunction of the DNA mismatch repair system results in microsatellite instability (MSI). MSI plays a central role in the development of multiple human cancers. In colon cancer, despite being associated with resistance to 5-fluorouracil treatment, MSI is a favourable prognostic marker. In gastric and endometrial cancers, its prognostic value is not so well established. Nevertheless, recognising the MSI tumours may be important for predicting the therapeutic effect of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Several gene expression signatures were trained on microarray data sets to understand the reg...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Authors: Ravindranath MH, Filippone EJ, Devarajan A, Asgharzadeh S Abstract Cytotoxic NK/CD8+ T cells interact with MHC-I ligands on tumor cells through either activating or inhibiting receptors. One of the inhibitory receptors is CD94/NKG2A. The NK/CD8+ T cell cytotoxic capability is lost when tumor-associated human leukocyte antigen, HLA-E, binds the CD94/NKG2A receptor, resulting in tumor progression and reduced survival. Failure of cancer patients to respond to natural killer (NK) cell therapies could be due to HLA-E overexpression in tumor tissues. Preventing the inhibitory receptor-ligand interaction by eithe...
Source: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy - Category: Microbiology Tags: Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother Source Type: research
In conclusion, this protein can be used for animal immunization toward preparation of a new monoclonal antibody that can be introduced as a drug in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID: 31009334 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy - Category: Microbiology Tags: Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother Source Type: research
Authors: Pencheva-Demireva M, El-Darawish Y, Kavaldzhieva K, Mladenov N, Lazarov V, Dimitrova-Dikanarova D, Markova T, Nikolov R, Okamura H Abstract Natural killer (NK) cells can discriminate between normal and cancer cells and are known to directly recognize and kill malignant cells or induce apoptosis. Thus, activation of NK cells is considered as a promising strategy for cancer treatment. However, clinical application has been somewhat limited because of difficulties in the preparation of sufficient number of highly cytotoxic/activated NK cells in vitro. We used cytokine stimulation to provide a suitable environ...
Source: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy - Category: Microbiology Tags: Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother Source Type: research
Abstract PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: The impact of mental health disorders (MHDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs) on healthcare utilization (HCU) in patients with cancer is an understudied phenomenon. LITERATURE SEARCH: A literature search of studies published prior to January 2018 that examined HCU in patients with preexisting MHDs or SUDs diagnosed with cancer was conducted. DATA EVALUATION: The research team evaluated 22 studies for scientific rigor and examined significant trends in HCU, as well as types of the MHD, SUD, and cancer studied. SYNTHESIS: The heterogeneity of HCU outcome measures, MH...
Source: Oncology Nursing Forum - Category: Nursing Authors: Tags: Oncol Nurs Forum Source Type: research
This study provides insight into the experiences of young women living with advanced breast cancer. Because these women may not appear ill to the general population, their needs and struggles are not well understood. The results of this study can be a baseline for additional research and clinical interventions. PMID: 31007263 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Oncology Nursing Forum - Category: Nursing Authors: Tags: Oncol Nurs Forum Source Type: research
Abstract PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: To evaluate the effects of breathing exercises on dyspnea, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), anxiety, and depression in patients with lung cancer. LITERATURE SEARCH: A systematic literature search of the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase®, PubMed®, Weipu, Wanfang, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was performed for publications dated prior to April 6, 2018. DATA EVALUATION: The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager and Stata. SYNTHESIS: 15 randomized controlled trials with a total of 870 participants met the inclusion cr...
Source: Oncology Nursing Forum - Category: Nursing Authors: Tags: Oncol Nurs Forum Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVES: To identify groups of participants with high and low levels of stigma and to examine the influence of stigma on social support, social constraints, symptom severity, symptom interference, and quality of life (QOL). SAMPLE & SETTING: 62 individuals with lung cancer were identified and recruited from a comprehensive cancer center in the southeastern United States. METHODS & VARIABLES: Participants completed a questionnaire that included demographic information and measures of stigma, symptom severity and interference, social support, social constraints, and QOL. IBM SPSS Statis...
Source: Oncology Nursing Forum - Category: Nursing Authors: Tags: Oncol Nurs Forum Source Type: research
Authors: Carlucci P, Trigiani M, Mori PA, Mondoni M, Pinelli V, Casalini AG, Conte EG, Buggio G, Villari L, Marchetti G Abstract Diseases of the pleura and pleural space are common and present a significant contribution to the workload of respiratory physicians, accounting for an annual incidence of more than 1.5 million cases in the US with the majority of cases resulting from congestive heart failure, pneumonia, and cancer 1. Although the radiographic and ultrasonographic detection of pleural abnormalities may be obvious, the determination of a specific diagnosis can often represent a challenge. Since pleural eff...
Source: Panminerva Medica - Category: General Medicine Tags: Panminerva Med Source Type: research
Conclusion: The thoracooscopy service at our trust has proven to be effective with encouraging outcomes. Respiratory trainees on rotation also have the opportunity to acquire training in the procedure, which is not yet available throughout the region.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Lung Cancer Source Type: research
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