Chronic pain impairs cognitive flexibility and engages novel learning strategies in rats

Cognitive flexibility, the ability to adapt behavior to changing outcomes, is critical to survival. The prefrontal cortex is a key site of cognitive control, and chronic pain is known to lead to significant morphological changes to this brain region. Nevertheless, the effects of chronic pain on cognitive flexibility and learning remain uncertain. We used an instrumental paradigm to assess adaptive learning in an experimental model of chronic pain induced by tight ligation of the spinal nerves L5/6 (spinal nerve ligation model). Naive, sham-operated, and spinal nerve ligation (SNL) rats were trained to perform fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, and contingency-shift behaviors for food reward. Although all groups learned an initial lever-reward contingency, learning was slower in SNL animals in a subsequent choice task that reversed reinforcement contingencies. Temporal analysis of lever-press responses across sessions indicated no apparent deficits in memory consolidation or retrieval. However, analysis of learning within sessions revealed that the lever presses of SNL animals occurred in bursts, followed by delays. Unexpectedly, the degree of bursting correlated positively with learning. Under a variable-ratio probabilistic task, SNL rats chose a less profitable behavioral strategy compared with naive and sham-operated animals. After extinction of behavior for learned preferences, SNL animals reverted to their initially preferred (ie, less profitable) behavioral choice. Our data su...
Source: Pain - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

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AbstractPurpose of ReviewMany studies have demonstrated that discogenic low back pain is the most common type of chronic low back pain (CLBP), one of the major causes of disability, and has a major socioeconomic impact. Our aim is to review present therapeutic interventions for discogenic low back pain.Recent FindingsThere are a multitude of treatments used in clinical practice to treat CLBP, but there is continued debate and lack of consensus among clinicians and the policy makers as to which modality is the best approach. Based on controlled evaluations, lumbar intervertebral discs have been shown to be the source of chr...
Source: Current Pain and Headache Reports - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conditions:   AOT;   Low Back Pain Interventions:   Other: Action Observation training;   Other: Active Exercises Sponsor:   Istituto Clinico Humanitas Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
, Kemmler W Abstract Background: Low back pain (LBP) affects almost everyone at least once in their lifetime. Various meta-analyses show promising effects on pain reduction for conventional exercise. However, the lack of time and, especially for pain patients, a fear of movement ("kinesiophobia") as well as functional limitations often oppose participation in such activities. In contrast, the advantage of novel training technologies like whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) lies particularly in a joint-friendly, time-effective, and highly customized training protocol and might be an alternative opti...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Jiang Wang, Wei Xu, Yan Kong, Jiangju Huang, Zhuofeng Ding, Meiling Deng, Qulian Guo, Wangyuan ZouAbstractSynaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) plays an important role in neuropathic pain. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2) is an isoform of vesicular glutamate transporters that controls the storage and release of glutamate. In the present study, we found the expression levels of VGluT2 correlated with the upregulation of SNAP-25 in the spinal cord of rats following chronic co...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Conclusions: Early imaging for low back pain in older individuals was common, and was associated with greater utilization of downstream services and persistent pain.
Source: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine - Category: Primary Care Authors: Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
Conclusion: Clinically relevant improvements in back pain intensity and disability were seen in the first 3 to 6 months of follow-up. A majority of patients does not become pain free within 3 months; this does not improve over 5 years. However, most patients stop consulting health care professionals during follow-up. Current medical strategies may not be sufficient in older back pain patients, where back pain becomes a recurrent or chronic condition in the majority of patients.
Source: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine - Category: Primary Care Authors: Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Dry-electrode-based transcranial direct current stimulation can lower pain perception in patients with chronic low back pain. The analgesic mechanism can affect the top-down modulation pathway of pain. PMID: 31683491 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research
Rebound headaches, also known as medication overuse headaches, are caused by the frequent or excessive use of pain-relieving and/or antimigraine drugs to treat headache attacks that are already in progress. (Note that these are not the same as oral prophylactic or preventive medicines, which should be taken daily.) In other words, the same medications that initially relieve headache pain can themselves trigger subsequent headaches if they are used too often. Medication overuse headaches can be disabling, forcing people with this condition to take sick leave and to be less productive at work and home. To be diagnosed with m...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Drugs and Supplements Headache Health Source Type: blogs
Source: Journal of Pain Research - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Journal of Pain Research Source Type: research
Although the delivery of appropriate healthcare is an important goal, the definition of what constitutes appropriate care is not always agreed upon. The RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method is one of the most well...
Source: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
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