Positron emission tomography of type 2 cannabinoid receptors for detecting inflammation in the central nervous system.

Positron emission tomography of type 2 cannabinoid receptors for detecting inflammation in the central nervous system. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2018 Jun 19;: Authors: Ni R, Mu L, Ametamey S Abstract Cannabinoid receptor CB2 (CB2R) is upregulated on activated microglia and astrocytes in the brain under inflammatory conditions and plays important roles in many neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and ischemic stroke. The advent of positron emission tomography (PET) using CB2R radiotracers has enabled the visualization of CB2R distribution in vivo in animal models of central nervous system inflammation, however translation to humans has been less successful. Several novel CB2R radiotracers have been developed and evaluated to quantify microglial activation. In this review, we summarize the recent preclinical and clinical imaging results of CB2R PET tracers and discuss the prospects of CB2R imaging using PET. PMID: 29921889 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Acta Pharmacol Sin Source Type: research

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Authors: Jacob JE, Cherian A, Gopakumar K, Iype T, Yohannan DG, Divya KP Abstract Chaotic analysis is a relatively novel area in the study of physiological signals. Chaotic features of electroencephalogram have been analyzed in various disease states like epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, sleep disorders, and depression. All these diseases have primary involvement of the brain. Our study examines the chaotic parameters in metabolic encephalopathy, where the brain functions are involved secondary to a metabolic disturbance. Our analysis clearly showed significant lower values for chaotic parameters, correlation dimensi...
Source: Neurology Research International - Category: Neurology Tags: Neurol Res Int Source Type: research
We present the case of a man that had a rapidly growing nodule on his face. Removal of the lesion was more difficult than anticipated because it was tightly adherent to adjacent tissue. Pathology from the lesion showed a malignant neoplasm thought to have arisen at a distant site. The evaluation of this patient may provide insights into the workup for patients that present with cutaneous metastatic malignancies of unknown etiology. In general, these patients need to be fully evaluated in an attempt to locate the primary lesion. When a primary lesion can not be ascertained, careful surveillance of the patient is warranted. ...
Source: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Drugs Dermatol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: For appropriately selected patients, combination fractional ablative CO2 and full-field ablative erbium resurfacing for facial rejuvenation is safe, efficacious and merits consideration. J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(7):796-799. PMID: 30005103 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Drugs Dermatol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): A. Deng, S. Pattanaik, A. Bhattacharya, J. Yin, L. Ross, C. Liu, J. ZhangAbstractBackgroundThere is a paucity of studies examining the beneficial effects of fish consumption on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among adults with diabetes, who experience a substantially high risk of CVDs.Methods and resultsWe analyzed the data of 1136 adults with diabetes mellitus aged 18 years and older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994, and were followed up through December ...
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
Authors: Tae WS, Ham BJ, Pyun SB, Kang SH, Kim BJ Abstract Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive medical imaging tool used to investigate the structure of white matter. The signal contrast in DTI is generated by differences in the Brownian motion of the water molecules in brain tissue. Postprocessed DTI scalars can be used to evaluate changes in the brain tissue caused by disease, disease progression, and treatment responses, which has led to an enormous amount of interest in DTI in clinical research. This review article provides insights into DTI scalars and the biological background of DTI as a relative...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research
In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that TIGIT is a prominent negative immune regulator involved in immunosenescence. This novel finding is highly significant, as targeting TIGIT might be an effective strategy to improve the immune response and decrease age-related comorbidities. Delivery of Extracellular Vesicles as a Potential Basis for Therapies https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2018/01/delivery-of-extracellular-vesicles-as-a-potential-basis-for-therapies/ Here I'll point out a readable open access review paper on the potential use of extracellular vesicles as a basis for therapy: harveste...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
AbstractCdk5 kinase, a cyclin-dependent kinase family member, is a key regulator of cytoskeletal remodeling in the brain. Cdk5 is essential for brain development during embryogenesis. After birth, it is essential for numerous neuronal processes such as learning and memory formation, drug addiction, pain signaling, and long-term behavior changes, all of which rely on rapid alterations in the cytoskeleton. Cdk5 activity is deregulated in various brain disorders including Alzheimer ’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and ischemic stroke, resulting in profound remodeling of the neuronal ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), a subtype of stroke, brings high morbidity and mortality to human beings. Multiple studies indicate that neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity resulted from the degradation products of blood clot play vital roles in ICH-induced secondary brain injury, which contributes to deterioration of neurological outcome. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a type of prostanoids commonly up-regulated in these progresses, is known to modulate numerous cellular and molecular processes and involve in various diseases, including ICH, cerebral ischemic, Alzheimer's disease ...
Source: Current Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research
Abstract ADAMTS‐4 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs type 4) is a metalloproteinase specialized in the degradation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, contributing to cartilage breakdown during arthritis. In this review, we first focus on the modifications of ADAMTS‐4 expression during CNS physiological and pathological conditions, including chronic diseases and injuries. Then, we discuss the contributions of ADAMTS‐4 to mechanisms mediating neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration during spinal cord injury, ischemic stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's ...
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Research - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract The peripheral (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) are delicate structures, highly sensitive to homeostatic changes-and crucial for basic vital functions. Thus, a selection of barriers ensures the protection of the nervous system from noxious blood-borne or surrounding stimuli. In this chapter, anatomy and functioning of the blood-nerve (BNB), the blood-brain (BBB), and the blood-spinal cord barriers (BSCB) are presented and the key tight junction (TJ) proteins described: claudin-1, claudin-3, claudin-5, claudin-11, claudin-12, claudin-19, occludin, Zona occludens-1 (ZO-1), and tricellulin are by now i...
Source: Pflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Pflugers Arch Source Type: research
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